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Ind. Aut. 



Med. Diet. 

Mai Med. 


Pet. Diet. 
Pbar. Ind 


Bee. Dec. 







Aslita tga Hridaya, ed. A. M. Kn ute o nf i . OA , 

Amai’a Kosha ed V n m i„vi ’ ^lon, 1891. 

Sariigraba,' ed. 

RW " ™‘ nda Vld r“»P>«>. Calcutta, 1875, 

Bkaishajya Vijnana. 

Ch (G0=^ V%4rfeam ’ 2 “ d editi °”' lm - 

Chakradatta, ed. Pyari Mohan Sengupta, Calcutta, 1295. 

Dhanvantari Nighanfcu, Anandasrama edition, 1896 (see RN.) 

: arita Samhita, ed. Binod Lai Sen Gupta. 

Indian Antiquary. 


Journal ASB. = Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
Journal GOS. = Journal of the German Oriental Society. 

Kaliyaoa Samgraha, Dr. P. Cordier’s Manuscript. 

Muktavali (Ayurvediya Dravya-guna Abhidhana), ed. Kali Prasanna 
Vitasarkar, Calcutta, Saka 1817. 


V * 

Chandra Gupta Kayiratna, Calcutta, 1894. « 

The Materia Medica of the Hindus, by XTdoy Chand Dutt. Revised edition, 
Calcutta, 1900. 

Madhava Niciana, ed. Jiyananda Vidyasagara, 3rd ed., 1901. 

Nidana, ed. Udoy Cl and Dutt, Jalcutta, 1880. 

Smaller St. Petersburg Dictionary, by Otto Bohtl ngk, 1S79. 
Pharmacograpliia Indica by Dr. William Dymock, 1890 . 

Raja Nighantu, Anandilrama od, 1896. (See DhN.) 

Btoente. DecouTO'tea de MSS. Medioaun Sanemts, darn, 1 Into by B*. P- 

Cordier. „ _ _ i qqq 

Sa Srate , ed. Jivtoanda V £££ dentta, 

S&rngad ,ara Samgraha, e. J . e d„ No. 27, Poona, 1891. 

Siddba Calcutta, 1889. 

Yanecasena, ed. Nanaa &M 

. r» 3 


XJ l. T r (tlv o j^w**v* 

Commentary on the fliudu Sy ^tei 

London, 1860. 

imSt! LftiCOvliBi) LOOOm 

a ’ • i„. n- Wise, New issue, 

of Medicine, by D r - VV1 ’ 

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■■■■■■■ T1IK MOWER MANUHCltlFr • ff» 

Bower Manuscript, which is named aft* 

i -**V ■ 

■ nant (mw 

r its discoverer, 

Major-Gnura]) H. Bower, C.B., fell into the hands of that officer, early in th< 
1890, in Kucliar, where lie had cone, on a confident ial mission 

k . ■ p 
<* & 

j n 

meat of India, in quest of the murderer of Dalgleish. 

the < io\ it- 

\ ' ' i Jr 

Kucliar, or Kucha, 3 situated about 41° 42' 50* N. Lai., and 80* 53' 50" E. Long., 

the name of one of the principal oases and settlements of Eastern Turkestan, on the great 

caravan route to China, which skirts the foot of the Tian Shan Range of mountains 

on the northern edge of the Takla Makan desert. 

On his return to India, Lieutenant Bower took the manuscript to Simla, whence in 

September 1890 he forwarded it to Colonel (now Major-General) J. Waterhouse, who was 

then the President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. By him it was exhibited to the 

Society at their monthly meeting on the 5th November 1890, when also a short note 

(see below. No. i. p, iv) from Lieutenant. Bower, dated the 30th September 1890, was 

read explaining the circumstances of the discovery. Some attempts were made after the 

meeting to decipher the manuscript, but they proved unsuccessful.® At the time I 

absent on furlough to E u rope. It was on my return voyage to India that I received the 

first news of the discovery through a copy of the Bombay Gazette which fell into my 

bauds at Aden. By a lucky chance, Major (now Major-General) W. B. Cumberland 

whose companion Lieutenant Bower bad been during the earlier part of his travels, liap 

r 1 »i 

pened to be a fellow passenger on the steamer, and furnished me with corroborative 

information. On reaching Calcutta in February 1891, being then the Philological 

Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, I at once claimed the manuscript from 

Colonel Waterhouse, wild most readily made it over to me. At the April meeting of 

that year, I was able to communicate to the Society the first decipherment of the 

manuscript which was immediately published in its Proceedings (April, 1891), pp. 54 

rc i 


1 Seethe Geographical Journal of the Royal GeograpM- j Eastern Turkestan. — The latitude and longitude of Kiuhar 
cal Society, Yol. V (1895), p. 240. i above given, are those which have lately been determined by 

The spelling Kucliar represents the local pronunciation j Dr. Yaillanfc of the French Expedition with a possible slight 

* ° 1 _ * _ .A.. I ♦ i 1 A A A .d 1 nm maims 

of the name, see M. A. Barth in Comptes Bendus of the Acade-j error of 300 oi 40 ) metre, in latitude, and of about ) ,000 metre. 

... * *• t * 1 1 .... ^ t l ^ .1 L A Ik IF Utm tn nid I t Pf 4 1 1 

miedes Inscriptions & Belle* Lettrea, 1907, p. 21. The .pelling in longitude, a* communicated to me by him m ms i«wr « 

:‘iutse), as Dr. A. vouLe Coq in- ! the 5th January 1910. See also his article in the LamnSe 

-»■ - M m. I V. 4E fl ■ 

Kucha, or Kucha, (Chinese K 
forms me (letter of 24-10-1909), occurs on coins and public docu- 
ments, It is used, e, g., in Dr. M, A. Stein’s Ancient R hot an, 
VoL I, p, 8, et passim , also in M. Chavannes" Documents sun 
les Turcs Occidentanx, p. 8, et passim. The latter work may 
be consulted on the ancient history of Kuchar. It is one of the 

4 *. J rtL. i. . * J. * • ■ * h 4 

Cartogmphique, October, 1910, 

3 See Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1890, P 

4 The whole story of the discovery and decipherment of the 

Bower Manuscript is reviewed in Sir Alfred Croft * Preai en ua 
address to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in their -WFFFffi 

M Vv AV ™ ■ F • + 1 

vvAnwuics. or so-called “ GarriBons,” the other three being for 1892, pp. 61-63. See also bit Chat ha ^ _ 

Kashgar, Khotan, and Karushahr, which anciently constituted t Address in the D noc ceding s foi 1HJ » pp* 

* 1 - • i ■, .. *• “r. 1 pi i " i * . ■ i 

■\ tri 


l N TUOl»l irfionr. 

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8Ap r*s i 

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%it <icrh)t ami its publication in Cnlei 

— t i. fiKdovory of ti& Bower a11 t _ i exploration of 

It wiks the uuscovw f i- t i, c arcb^oiogicfw 

store'll the Whole modem »»;>"•" hler ha ving see* ««-’ «**g ° r . t,M> d ’«*«v«r» 

ton.' The late Hofmt V of Bengal, at once announced it m an early j, 

the Proceeding* «>f the Asial.ic So ^ Russian Archaeological fc* 

taring *w t hwr # tta: "■»’ ■“ Gl) „ era ] i„ KMigM, t<> Wlloct 

treasures . 0 In response t o it the ^ Pu lai 

of the Vie mu 



V 1 

Tic autumn and winter of 1892-3, of which 
Published a report and specimens in the Iranmcb.ons of the Imp^, 

il Society, V»l. VIlI,f«18M ; t 

flli manuscript 

Library in St. I Vtersbiirg, m 
Serge d’Oldenburg 

Russian Archaeological — , , Rer y We!x>r \r - 

M JE£ in k wfconn curiosity hud bcco .ro^tta^h. m«ta S w,,l, L,c„ tenml 
Bo«r .u’thc latte's return journey to ludiu (sec below No. ». p. «). ttj m* 
L» was nt ouc trnnsnutted to me, .nd a report and speotmone wc« ymbbsM by „ 
in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LXII of 1S93, pp. 1 ff.» Ia 
the following year, 1893, on my motion, the Government of India issued instructions 
to their Political Agents in Kashmir,. Ladak, and Kashgar, to make enquiries for ancient 
manuscripts, and secure all that might come in their way. 8 It was in pursuance of 
these instructions that the “ three Further Collections ” of manuscripts came into my 
hands, of which a report and specimens were published by me in the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LX VI, of 1897, pp. 2 13 ft* The most important, in 
the present connection, of those three collections are the Macartney manuscripts, so 
named after Mr. G. Macartney, the British Consul in Kashgar, who secured them in 

1895. 10 

The direct result of these discoveries of ancient manuscripts was the inception of the 
first expedition of Dr. M. A. Stein into. Eastern (or Chinese) Turkestan i a 1900-1901, 
of which a report was published by him, in 1902, in his Ancient Khotau in two volumes." 

It is true that there had been numerous expeditions into that country in earlier 
such, e.g^ as theliussian expedition of General Prejevalski in 1&78 and 1885, the British 
expedition of Major (no tv Lieui-Colonei) Sir Francis E. Younghusbaiid, K.C.I.E., 

in 1887-90, the French expedition of M. Dutreuii de iikins in 1891-2, and the Swedish 
^ expedit 

taken with the object of arclncological exploration. Their main ob ject was scientific, 
i.e., geographical, geological, zoological, and the like, and any antiquities which they 

5 Sie, c.g., Biihler in the Vienna Oriental Journal, Vol. 

\ IX (1833), p. 2(iJ, Dr. Sfctii.ii in Ancient Kkotan, Introd, p. 
v; M. Pel Hot, in Comptes Bendy* des Seances, 1937, p . 1 6 0, 
also infra, Xu. x, p. k ; Profoasor S. d Oldenburg in the 

W.* * I 1 ** tata. iwta.bgu.1 Soei^y, 

i I’K a ItT U ti Mr m 


>* p, *39, footnote) passed in lQn> ; l ji 
pos^aion uf the Bodleian Librarvk n % 4 ‘ i,. nt ° the 

***■ Vol. II.. p. lit No. imu y W £ 1 ** their Cata - 
5 Tor see my I( ep0 H on the British Cob 

lection oj Central Asian Antiquities, Fart X » ’d lin 

P« i* > also Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal, XsP 

p. 65. 

9 See also my Report on the British 
Central Aeian Antiquities, Part IX., being an K*t» 

to the Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LXX.jFt 

10 Since 1902 they are in the possession of the hn *- 
Museum in London 

11 On its inception, see Introd., pp. v, vi. i ^ 1 ^ 
dition started from Kashmir on the 3 1st Hay ' 
returned to London on the 2nd July 1901. 

u For two fuller, though still not quite eom 
of such expeditions, see ilie G-eographtc&l 
for 1893, p, 57, and the Journal, KA8., for 19o9, P* 



brought homo h » t goumrob an it worn, aooiriont ally and by tn«^ wn 

best expedition to Eastern Parkonl m which Will pntlopin l < a nvtmully fgj§ tin? purpm* 
of exploring ibo country lu’chmologieilly, and o\«*nv;ti ini' nnoient 
U ustin u of M 1>. KlemotU* in Ih'.is 

: .. mi v i§m-§ 

lit ■ 2 $ 

, ill . • u -is j *■ .- 



, wMI - h o k | mh 1 ii ()f J)^ 

it owed its inception directly to tlio stimulus imparted originally by the discovery 

A series of archaeological expeditions now followed in m 

of tin- Honor Manuscript. 

accession. It comprised the first German expedition, led by Vrid'ooaor Grdniv. I.-l, la 

1902-3 ; a Japanese expedition, in 1902-3, Under Count Ota ni ; M the second German 


lirst Prussian) expedition, under Dr. A. von EeOoq, in 1904-7; and tin ml Prussian 

expedition led again by Profess or tmiuwoclol, in 1005-7. These 

were iuuoWci^ m 

19* * *- s > Iff the second British expedition of Dr. Stein, which was extraordinarily 
successful, and fruitful of archaeological results, and of which a preliminary account was 
published in the Geographical Journal (for July and September) 1909. The last of 
the series was the French expedition, under M. Paul Pelliot in 1907, which has recently 

(autumn 1909) returned to Europe. As it made a particular point of thoroughly explo- 

ring the district of Kuchar, where the Bower Manuscript was found, its full and final 

report when it appears may be hoped to set at rest any still remaining doubts 
the exact locality and time of its discovery. 16 


In the meantime the publication of the Bower Manuscript steadily pursued it 

course. The proposal to prepare a complete edition of its text, illustrated with facsimile 

Plates, and accompanied by an annotated English Translation, was accorded, in 189;h 

the sanction of the Government of India, through the cordial support of Sir Charles 

the then Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal. 

The First Part of the edition 

appeared in 1893 ; the Second Part (in two fasciculi) iu 1891-5, and the remaining 

Parts III to VII in 1897. This completed the edition of the text and translation. 

After an interruption of several years, caused by my retirement, from India ami 
engagement in other time-absorbing work on subsequent finds of ancient Central Ash 

Manuscripts, the Sanskrit Index, being a complete vocabulary of the Bower Manuscript 

was published in 1998, and a Revised Translation of its medical portions, in Parts 1 

II and III, in 1909. The Introduction, benefiting by the long delay and the attendant 

material increase of information, now brings the 3 laborious work of the edition to its long* 


The Bower Manuscript itself, which till the completion of the edition of the text in 

1897 bad remained in the hands of the editor, was returned, in April 1898, to its owner, 

— U — 

Colonel Bower. By him it was taken to England, where it was finally purchased, in 


It remains to determine, so far as it is possible with the evidence at present 



u A report was published in the transaction* of the j sequel (No. * , p. viii). A he preliininaiy sketch niap of th* 
Imp. Raman Archied. Soc., Vol. XIII. of 18119 ; transl. Kuchar district, which i 


» aH 

illustrate* this chapter. vy«s, in 

( to a request from me* most kindly prepared by Or, \ 'atlhftH 

summary report appeared in the Century who had accompanied M. lelliot ou h's yp ditiow. 

Magazine for October, 1906. » In the Second Fart (1003) of the Library 

** A preliminary report, read in the seance of the French is No. 1090, p. 110. 

Academy, on the 'i’Lid of March 1U07, is referred to in the 

( *i, 


l t 

ilm subject is contained in I he not*' «»f t/n-ui, , u 
(i> The earliest information on *. • of tho ma> nu8Cript to Colonel \v 

g*?* ^Proceedings of tho Asiatic Society of lb „ „■ fc 
house, and which is published » g tcin bor 1890, and runs as follows 

1800, p. 221. It is dated from Sim > ^ - subWl ,ean town, provided t would go th*» il4 

« While at KuchsramaU offeree info trouble will 

111, 1 % V *• »• » ^ J " 

Rower, whicli accompanied his 



irerai are m w - . * 

KAshgar* Tho one 0llt ° w,m ‘ h Uto »»amiycnpt 

While at Kuchar 

the middle of the night, as ho w 

that he had taken an European there 

man procured me a packet of old 
of one of the curious old erections, of which sever 

also one on the north bank of the nver^at 
procured is just outside the subterranean city. hig h broad in proportion, ami resombW 

« These erections are generally Thev are solid, and we principally composed of 

somewhat in shape a large co .ig o ■ , ,• aT Judging from lire we»thev-hw»teu appearai,,,. 

sun-dried bricks, with layers of beams now the rain and s now fail i a. , 

they possess, and taking into consideration the tact that in 

nominal, they must be very ancient indeed • bad promised to lake mo aro .dilated aUmt 

“The subterranean ruins of Mmg-oi, » . , u tUo of 

hi miles from Kuchar on the banks of the bhahyai nvei, auutuuBa , “ 

capital. The town must have been of considerable extern, mu ^ ^ u 

the action of the river. On the cliffs of the left bank high up m midair may bo seen tho remains of 

the bouses still hanging on the face of the cliffs. ,■ . , i /P * * 

« One of the bouses ! entered was shaped as shown in the sketch )• 

tunnel, 6 yards by 4- yards, through a tongue- 

d represents a 


shaped hill- C and D aj’e entrances, the 
hill being almost perpendicular at A and 
B. 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 are cells, roughly 6 feet by 
6 feet. The walls have been plastered, and 
what appear to be the remains of geometries ! 
patterns can be made out. 

“ ] was told the remains oi other 
similar towns may be seen in the district. 17 
In Yaqub Beg's lime a lot o:l gold was dug 
up ’* 










Sketch through ;i portion of tho Ming-ot of QumtuvtV 

(ii) Nearly two years later, in a letter dated Kasauji, tlie 17tli August 1892, written 
in response to a request by me for further particulars, Lieutenant Bower wrote as follows: 

“ 1 he story of the finding of the manuscripts is this. A man in Kucliar told mo of tho existence 
of an underground city, and said that he had gone there to dig for treasure a few days previously , 
Imt had only succeeded in finding what he called a book. I asked him to show it to me; and 1» 
went away, and came back bringing the manuscript as it now is. He was anxious to sell it and . • 

l wa* very glad to pick up for a small sum what might prove of great value. 

“ I induced lam to take me to the underground city ; and as ho was frightened that ho might get 
trouble for taking a stranger there, we mamba, 1 fa +l,„ 

... , t . , , , - ’ — uu show me the place lu? had tlug 

manuH / ipts out of ami lie took me to the larr * * - 1 


« , . tliore » wo marched in the night. When day broke, we found ounohes 

amongst some low barren lulls, and keeping on, came to tho banks of a. river, and there the bills wriv 
tunnelled by the streets of the ancient city. I asked the guide 

trn; /ilil t*f u.rtA l.n Ia,. IV. ~ 1 , w • . 

; i 4.- M a l „£ « . ge mound -like erection that I have alluded to before 

No. i j, to the best of my recollection about “ 

in, lev el with the ground. There some bits of wood Ia\ u Im » 

" ^ V UUUUV U I I' * 

bnteb^W, / , V 7 600 yards from the underground city, and showed where a 

A bad been jeccntly excavated straight ,n b***jsi «,.’tL j.-l _ . .... ^ _ , . 

vat in a very crumbly state. 

j - fw.\ t inmilar Wn%-m, or lar^o groups of rook-cut 
mrw, * iwt at Qizil, west of Kuchar, higher un f},„ 

‘J* m of Kuchar ; and atSfutcn 

of Kuchar ; .U„ IuiMm* north-cuat, at Suba,hi and 

Sirnsin. Sec tho Sketch Man. 

l’4i .. * 

18 According to Dr. Stein" (letter of 3rd Dee. UHW) ^ v 

ow hiokou conglomertite ridges apnvoaeh tho town ti v'‘W 1101 
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“ A more perfect hermetieal scaling than the mound funned it would he iropoigible to ima * 

as the outs side hud ft slight coating of a baked clayey nature, and the d. ument^ had 

been buried right in the centre of it. The statement that they weie dug out of the ruing of thf* «» i 

, J * rt- i * ft I rn ‘ * .* T*A I * 

Fig. 2. 

ground city k a total misconception of the facts. 19 . 

<* I think l saw about Kuchar five or six of these mound-like 
otvvtkms.' 0 This (Fig. 2) will give you a rough idea of the erec- 
tion, The asterisk indicates the place where the documents were 

( tii) Again three years later, in 1895, Captain Bower 
repeated liis account of the acquisition of the manuscript 
in a paper contributed by him to the Geographical 
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of 

in which he described Ms trip to Turkestan.” That account, in VoL V„ pp. 254 If., was 
as follows : — 

** At Kuchar, where I halted for several days, a Turki who had been in India, used to come and sit 
with me in my room in the serai . One day in conversation, he told me about an ancient city he knew of, 

built underground in the desert. I thought at first that he meant one of the ordinary buried cities of the 
Gobi desert ; but he insisted that it was something quite different, and explained that it was underground 
by the wish of the people that made it, not by reason of a sandstorm. He told me also that he and one of 
bis friends had gone there and dug for buried treasure, but had found nothing but a book. 1 asked to see 
it ; and going away, he returned in about an hour, bringing some sheets of birch bark covered with writing 
in a Sanskritic character and held together by two boards. I bought them from him; and it was fortunate 
that I did so, as they have since excited a considerable amount of interest in the learned world ... 

When I asked him to take me to this interesting place, he demurred a good deal, on the ground that 
the people would kill him, if he took an European there ; but at last he consented on condition that 
we went at night, so as not to be seen. This 1 readily agreed to do ; and starting at midnight, we 
marched steadily forward in a westerly direction. When daylight broke, we had left cultivation far 
behind, and were on the shoulders oi' a range of low gravelly hills, and away to the south a narrow strip 
of green with houses at intervals marked the course of a canal. Keeping on, we came to the curious old 
erection from under which the manuscript had been unearthed. Similar erections are found in different 

parts of Chinese Turkestan They are solid, and built of sun-dried bricks and wooden 

beams now crumbling away. In shape they roughly resemble a gigantic cottage loaf, about 50 feet high.” 
“ Close by, on the banks of a river, were the remains of the ancient underground city of ? 

to winch the guide hail promised to take me High upon the face of the cliffs 

overlooking the water, the marks of what have been habitations are to be seen worn away iu such a 
manner as to show sections, I entered one of the tunnels. It was shaped as under 

Here follows the section through the Ming-o'i (Fig. 1)» audits explanation i exactly 

as given in No. i (p. iv). 

With the help of the Topographical Plan and View of the Ming-ai of Quin Turn 
| see Frontispiece, Nos. II and III), which I owe to the kindness of Professor Griinwedel, 
t he description of Lieutenant Bower’s march will be readily understood. He approached 
Ming-oi from the east, from Kuchar. (See the Sketch Map of the Oasis of Kuchar.) 

it day-break ho was above the point marked A on the Plan, looking “away to the 

'outli ” on the double canal with its narrow strip of green cultiv? 
houses belonging to the large village of Faiz&b&d. “ Keeping on ” he came to the rui 

** This apparently refers to the remarks of Biihler in his 
on the discovery of tlxe Bower Manuscript id the Vienna 
Journal, Yol, V (1891), pp. 103 and 302. 

** As n fact, there are four ruined stupas near Qum Tura, 
arc at Qo$h Turn, and one at Qutluq Urda (letter from 

Dr. Stein, 3rd Dee. 1909)— all sis on, or near, thivlw* ** 

Lieut. Bower’s man* to the Ming-»S of Qum «**• : * 

Sketch Map. Of the four stupas near Qum lum two are 

1>, one at A, and one at 0 of t he Toi.-srapliical Fhux. 

I pt i in ’> ’ • ' ' 


t M A iff 

stApa of l!u' manusorii't at tin' umrk^\ < 

^ • , No. i), was the mate wottp of caves on the U- 

( Jkmti by, ' nl I Im ’ ^ 

ut i . , g i , m Wiom 

I I* I til I 1 K I ii I |j < ) r j 

J 1 If ) 

uant Mower niton ah 0« Ills 

V ( * j» 

■ 1 «»o w Hlll zm 

oh lie had, earl lev in the morning, <|j N .,. r . i ’ 

" wm 

yards (stH 

of t ho tunnels of which lieu to 
village of ifoiaftbftd, the houses of w 

distance, see below p. xiii. I , 

With regard to the Weber Mamwcripto, the earliCHf irlermieo i„ 

ooverv is contained in a letter, addressed to me by tin- BfiV. I’. Weber, of th« M„ nu . 
Mission in Lch, in Ladak, on the 21st June 1892. Translated I rtf ft* the Gorina . 1 i( ' 

as follows : 

u PUlm 

1 Two years ago I met here in Leh the traveller Captain Bower, He showed »o an w u . 

had been found not far from Yarkand/ 1 and which he Intended mil. nutting to ymi , ( _ ' ' 

I regret that I have never been able to learn anything about the ago .>! tlml Imok ; but in tbs mouii!,,,,, 
I have succeeded in getting hold of an undoubtedly very old book, which I venture to submit U, j„„ [,,, 
critical examination. It was found, the year before (im retffanf/enen, Mr), not far from Kogiar Wl 
border of Yarkand 2 * ..... • Near that place, there is a house whirl., npj.mvtdly sinm 

memorial times, is ruined and buried. 2 ® Some merchants, hoping to dud tROasun*, umlr.ii.n.k with miuii 
trouble to excavate it, but found only the bodies of some cows which, on tho first tourli, <-i-titti1>h-«| into 

dust. On that occasion they found also the above mentioned 


(y) The above narrated particulars of the excavation of the “ houHo/* or in 

which the Weber Manuscripts were found, Mr. Weber had from a letter written in 

Urdu, which was interpreted to him by the person who delivered the uimruseripts U> \m, 

This appears from another letter addressed to me by Mr. Weber from Lch on. tin 

July 1892. In it he wrote that the book had been no more than three days in hi* Invntl? 
before he transmitted it to me. He, then, continued as follows (translated from tin 

German original) : 


<f As I received the book through an intermediary, the latter could not fumith mg with exact 
information. He showed me a letter in Urdu (which, however, I could not read) written by ill 
finder of the book, an Afghan merchant, in which the find-place aud everything that 1 i-eporM In 
my previous letter was stated. The people knew that I collect Tibetan object* of every kind, and it 
was for that reason that the book was brought to me.” 

(vi) The identity of the “ intermediary ” (Munshi Ahmad Din), and the “Afghan 

merchant” (Dildar KMn), mentioned in the preceding quotation, is disclosed in a 

letter written by Mr. Consul Macartney, on the 12th October 1896 from JUmligai, to 

Lieut. -Colonel Sir A. C. Talbot, K.C.I.E., then British ^Resident in Kashmir- 


letter was sent togethei with the Macartney Manuscripts, the acquisition ol a purl inn 
of which is explained in it as follow :* 

“This is a manuscript, presented by Dildar Khan, an Afghan merchant in Yarkand- K 
appears that when the Bower MS. was found in Knehar, two others were at the same time and unde. 

the same circumstances discovered. 2 * Dildar KMu obtained possession of the latter, and took tire 

He gave one to Munshi Ahmad Din, who in bis turn ' * 1 * 

to Leh in 189 1. 35 


Ihe reference, of course, is to the Bower Manuscript, 
which, owing to a misapprehension, Mr. Weber at that time 
believed to have been discovered in Kugiar (Kokyar), about 60 i 
miles south of Yarkand, at 77° 12' E Long., and 37” 25' £ 
lat. Sec the Map n. the Geographical Journal, Julv 1893. | 

SlSr irn y S- V ‘ n B i Sh r ’ £ram Wi - sffi 

oeptembei 1893. See Sir Charles Elliott's Annual Address 
to tho Asiatic Society of Bemral 1894 n ua . «i. r 

ABB., Vo!. LXII (1893), pp 1 and 4 * f v 

LX VI (1897) p. 239. ; and eW > VoL 

32 The German orisrinal ha* 

Haus. The word ** house "evidently represent ft tbu Ih 1 . j|J 
of Mr. Webers native informant* That word ^ # 

usually employed by the natives of Tarkeafen 

tl M . . 

stupa ; see, c.y,, Dr. Stein's Ancient Kkoiuih V" ' '' 07. 

** See Journal As. Sue- Beng,, Vol, I»X-Vf (j s ’ | f j* ft 
# u This statement, as will be shown in t *j* * jiMfrfi** 
mi apprehensiou. The “two others ’* ratltor _ ^ pls$* 

of manuscripts^ (gee No, x), aud they weai h >tU * y 0 f th ,J 
it Fid at a thue different from those of the di#<$ 

Boww 1 Manuscript, ; 

"* Tliig should be Het- Nos- iv 

Chapter I ] 

Min Weber, Moravian Missionary, 
in Dildar Kh un^ possession was 
a certain Fniz Muha mined Kh an, 
presented it to me.” 

lNTHOT»Ti<T 1.0 n 

IIoin'i! I, lie origin of the Woljer Manuscripts <Ph« «rt. «. * • 

***** by him to India, and left with 

BUdar Kkan brought it back t„ Turkestan last year [T&otj'fand 

(rii) Prom the preceding quotation it is seen that the “ intermediary ” f rom 
whom Mr. Weber received his manuscripts, was Munslii Ahmad Din. and that 
the "Afghan merchant, who soot them, through the intermediary, to Mr Weber 
was Dildar *£ of Yarkand. This man, however, was not the writer 

r W : et (m N °- V) refers * That letter must lw ’ c been one witten 
to Dildar Sian by his elder brother, QfauMm Qadir Kh&n, who sent the manu- 

scripts, a portion of which found their way to Mr. Weber, through Munslii Ahmad 

Dm. This appears from an account, which was procured for me by Mr. Macartney 

from Dildar Sian himself i n January 1898. That account was written in Yrdd 
and may be translated as follows 2 *: 

"I heard from my brother Sbulftm Qadir Khan that there was a dome-like tower near Kuchar 

at the foot ; of a mountain. Some people said that there was a treasure in itj it must be searched out. 

Accordingly , some people, making a hole in the tower, began to excavate it, when inside they found 

a room holding compartments (ghat khditaddr ),*> and in it a cow and two foxes standing. On touching 

them with the hand the cow and foxes fell to the ground as if they were dust. In that place tho^ 

two books- were found enclosed in wooden boards. Also there is in that place a wall made as if of 

stone (ditodr sang he mmodfiq), and upon it something is written in characters not known. It is 

said that a few years ago an English gentleman 29 went there, and having visited the plaee. came 
away. Nothing more is known,” 

Plainly this account is identical with that given by Mr. Weber (see No, iv), 
as interpreted to him from an Urdu letter. It shows that the letter was written 





of Dildar Khan, on which the latter based tbe account, above- quoted, which lie gave 
to Mr. Macartney for transmission t-o me. The importance of these facts lies in 



mediately after the discovery, in 1891, by a native informant in a letter written for the 
information, not of any European enquirer, but of Ms own brother. Native informants, 

in their dealings with Europeans, are, no doubt, not reliable; but in the circumstan- 
ces of the present case, — a native merchant dealing with another native merchant, his 
own brother, with common interests — , there seems to be no good reason to distrust the 
substantial accuracy of the account of the discovery. 

(viii) A little later in the same year, in November 1898, another more detailed 
account, in Urdu, of the discovery and dispersion of the Weber and Macartney Manu- 
scripts was procured forme by Captain (now Lieut.-Colonel) S. H. Godfrey, C.I.E., from 
Munslii Ahmad Din. In all probability it was based on information supplied to the 
Muushi bv Dildar Khan .!£« 

The main points in it are the following 30 : 

St <2 

No my Me port on the British Collection of Central 

29 This is a cod fused reference to Lieutenant Bo we? 

Asian .Ant iq uitics, Part I, In trod., p. xi. j who wont to Qum Turn, but not to Qutluq t T rda. 

57 In my Repot'i (see preceding note) this phrase is trails- ; 30 See my Report on the British Collection of Centra 

(( spacious,” but the literal, and more correct, translation Asian Antiquities) Part I, Introd., pp* x and xi. There ex 

tt as in the text above. 

88 Or rather 41 bundles of manuscripts.” See below No. x. 

planatory statements of my own are intersperse l. 

Braceedings, ASB., 1898, pp* 63, 64. 

See > 



[ CilAJ'TElt J 

* Some years ago some people of Km- liar undertook io make m 6*cavftti< 

J #n.J of an ancient tower, TteJr 

'tigging »'*** Urn tower wus in Uud imwmv, a* it, wa* W#B fctow# that in Uim y ;i k^, 

much gold had boon diHcowivd in MUtdi anciimt building#, Wludlmi* or nut they found any treasure 
h mi known j but w hat they did foul was a number of manuscripts ami d<ta«dicd pap0f# # together with 
tho bulio of a eow and two foxes standing, Tho manuscript book# ami papers w< t< taken to the hon#e 
ei the chief Q&^of the town, where a couple of days afterwards they were m$n by Hijl Ohulam QMn 
heaped up in a corner, there being a big basket (**W) full of them. On enquiry, having been told the 
whole story by tho Qfifi, ho brought away a few of them. Of these he gave one to Lieutenant Bower,* 1 
while he sent the others to his younger brother Ditdar Elian in Yarkand. These the lull <t l,, ok with him 
to L^h iu 189 1 Hero he gave one portion to Ahmad Din, who in his turn gave it to Mr, Weber. The 
olatr portion Bildir Kljan took with him to India, where he left it with a friend in Aligarh* On a 
subsequent visit to India, in 1895, here-took it from his friend, and brought it back to Turkestan, and 
presented it to Air. Macartney . What became of the rest of the manuscripts in Ihe house of tho (izbi is 
not exactly known. It is probable that Andijani merchants in Kuchar, who are Russian subjects, got bold 
of some of them, and gave them to Mr, Petrov sky, the Russian Consul General in Kashgar. 5 ' 5 As late a 
ten manuscripts were reported by Dildar Kh an, oil the information of his brother in Kuchar, to be in 
the possession of a certain Yusuf Beg. Unfortunately the negotiations set on foot by Air, Alacartnev for 
the purchase of these manuscripts fell through, owing to the Beg’s denial of possession from fear of the 
Chinese authorities. It is believed that subsequently Air. Petrovski succeeded in purchasing them/* 51 

(ix) W ith regard to the ten manuscripts referred to at the end of the preceding 
account of Alunslii Ahmad Din, I received, in response to a request for further inform- 
ation, in November 1895, from Mr. Macartney the translation of a letter of the Chinese 
Amban of Kuchar, dated on the previous 7th December 1894, which runs as follows 35 : 

I have received your letter desiring me to enquire whether there are any sacred Tibetan manu- 
scripts in the family of Timur Bag, I lost no time in summoning him. He stated that he had no such 
manuscripts, but that some people had several years ago \i.e. } in 1891] dug some out from a big mound 
situated at the west of the city [ of Kuchar], and almost 5 li [about one mile] from it, and as this took 
place a long time ago, the documents had either been sold or burnt. I also went} in person to make an in- 
spection of the mound which was about 10 clang [approximately 100 feet] in height, and about the same 
dimension in circumference. As people had already been digging there, a cavity was seen which however 
had fallen in. I hired 25 men to dig under proper supervision. After two months* work, they dug out 
only a parcel of torn paper, and torn leaves with writing on them. I now forward this to you. 
If afterwards I discover any person possessing such manuscripts, I shall again communicate with 



■ 1 v y * W.P- ' ' J UwC .. ji ■ jrj_ ;• kv, -44 a. •* ■ , . mm g > - , . | 

(x) Subsequently the oasis of Kuchar was visited by a series of expeditions 

Japanese, German, Russian, and French (see ante, p. iii) — for the purpose of exploring 
all the sites of archaeological interest situated in it. It was the object of the last 
expedition, the French, led by M. Pelliot, more especially to explore systematically the 
sites reputed to be those from which the Bower, Weber, Macartney, and Petrovski 
Manuscripts had been extracted by the native treasure seekers. The only report on 
ihe subject, however, which as yet is available is contained in a letter of M. Pelliot 

» This 

’bis is a total ‘misconception. Lieutenant Bower, as ) Imperial Library in St. Petersburg during the aut 
• slates himself (see No. iii), received his manuscripts, | winter of 1892-3, there are portions of at least two mai 

umn and 

HHBHPflPK. I manuscripts, 

m>t from an Afghan, but from a Turki, and as will be shown , of which other portions are included in the Weber and Hacart- 
m the sequel, he received it one year earlier than the occasion ney Manuscripts- See Journal , Aa. Soc. Ben**., Yol. LXVI 

here referred to- The statement, it should be noted, appears (1897), pp. ?41-2, also my Repm't, Part II, in°Extra Number an account of 1898Jand is due to a confusion of I the “ _ 

MnnsM himself. The genuine early and contemporary native 
tradition knows nothing of it. For an explanation of the 
i, see below p. xii. 

3 " This should be 1892. See ante, note 25 . 

fhat this really was the case is proved by the fact that 
amoiv 4 the manuscripts which Mr. Petrovski sent to the 

as n 

to Journal, ASB., VoU LXX (1901), pp. 16-17 (No. 2, 
Pothi) ; also Vienna Oriental Journal , Voh VII, p. 273. 

84 These, of course are not included in the Petrovski 
Collection of 1892-3 referred to in the preceding note. 

35 See JoM'nal, As. Sue. Bong,, Vol. LXVI (1S97)> 

pp *213-4 

OtiArn it l j 

l NTn< HU'i TinM, 

?i w hit'll was ivml hy M A. 

wf . 


t in 

dated; Uu> 20th Jammt'.v 

des InseriitfioUM A Itelles kottri'H m lltcir HtWlCu of this 22nd A'mrcit and w1.i,.U u 
, — »» ,lu ’ Ww/»/«’* itendw, pp, 163 IV. It nu nnoumil of all u,,. j M j ' f . Is 
whieli at |>ivsotil, •"»> at Ult* dUtWJOO of lime, npiituuvs to Ik: oMaiiiiihl.; ;l t t !„■ ' ^TT mlil^ 
or the discoveries ilseir. M. PoUlot relate. (/«*. M p. Kit) t lull, cm I lie 2M January 1907 
lie wont <o visit (lie Ming-ai or rook-CUt wir » of to tl.e north-wcnt of Kuehar 
(808 the Sketch On hi* rdmu Ji<- look the more difficult hill route, where he met 

with a well-educated Turhi, named Timur Beg, who was i a chargo of the copper mines of 

nr. From this man M, IYI lint dioilcd some int(mstin<>- ■■■■■ ■ 

"*0 ^ 

discovery of the- manuscripts m question, His letter, translated from the original 
French, proceeds as follows |(pi 105) ?: 

f % From the time of my arrival at Kmdmr, Berezovski had spokon to me about 250 bundles of 
Hi mid manuscripts which had been found about a score of years ago, in the ruined grand stupa of 

a little to the west of Kuehar. These books, Berezovski told me, had been distributed in 
a series of small receptacles built into the very brick core of the stupa ; and some of them still 
remained in a certain Turki family which refused to sell them. Berezovski had this information 
from u his man ” as ho always called him, a shady person, treasure-seeker and sorcerer on occasion, well 
acquainted with the country, but a har without an equal. I have caught him in flagfante delicto on 
several occasions, and as tho places which wore shown to mo as the ancient receptacles of the book 
were little capable of ever having contained anything, I was convinced that, even if the discovery was 
true, at all events the informant, Mir Shevif, had not been an eye-witness of it/’ 

u Until my meeting with Timur Bog it had seemed to me little probable that we should ever hear 
much more about tho discovery. But while I was conversing with him, he spoke to me, of his 
own accord, of books which had been found some time ago by treasure seekers at Qutluq Ur da. There 

were about 25 bundles, each between two wooden boards, the whole in an unknown script, measuring 
about 0*30 by 0*10 metre ; also one very largo book was found in a bag. The treasure seekers, not know- 
ing what to do with their booty, offered it to Timur Beg’s uncle, Ghanizat Khoja, who was the headman 
of that part of the village, lie, however, did not attach to the books any greater value, and thus little 
by little, being torn by the children, and exposed to neglect, they all got lost. No one suspected that 
these old papers could possess any valued’ 

“The idea occurred to me that po$sibh the Bower Manuscript was one of the manuscripts of 
Ghanizat Khan. For this, however, 1 had no proof, nor oven any serious indications. In fact, as I should 
explain, Bower was told that his manuscript had been found in one of the caves of the Ming-o'i of Qum 
Tur&. This in itself is quite possible ; for though, as a rule, the Ming-ois have yielded only detached leaves, 
the Germans are said to have stumbled at Qizil on an almost complete text. 30 But in any case, it appeared 
to me very little probable that the particular grotto which had been indicated to Bower, and which, in 
the course of centuries, had been but tittle encroached upon by the sands, had yielded any manuscript. 
The find if it was made at all in Quin Tur&, must have taken place in another grotto.” 

« But there is another possible solution. I asked Timur Beg whether he ever heard of any of the 
bundles having been sold to a foreigner. lie replied that he had heard Say that one of the servants of 

his uncle had once taken one or two bundles and sold them to the “Afghan” Qadir Khan, who had 
resold them to an Englishman. 37 There is sfill, at the present day, at Kuehar a Qadir Khan who, as 
, is an English subject. People call him an Afghan, just as they call the Aqsakal an <f Afghan, 
because lie comes from the region of Peshawer. Is he the same man ? I do not know ; for, as I believe 

a re-* 

I had understood from Timur Beg that the QMir Kh &n iu question was dead. 

If the truth of bis story 

mt'fisnring about 22 X 7 om. It Is shown in figs. « » nd 

d xv iu. ; , v 

two wooden boards, consisting of a lar*o number (about 37 This is a vague reference; but it caun0 . r twa.. 

Dr. A. von Le Coq informs me (letter 29th October 
1909) that it was a well preserved pvt hi tied up between 7, Chapter II, pp. xvii and win. 

60) of leaves in Brill mi soripC *nd Sanskrit language ; also I Lieut. Bower, who is out of the xv. 

one leaf in Bruhini script and an unkno wn language j ■ or to Mr. Macartney, or possibly to )0 

V!* gs. 

■ ■> i .,■•* ?: '• v : : 

••■: , ‘V*. '-r^* • ra ■*" m •' 

rV' a;, ■'■- C ' ,1 



* rlHEtS 

can He 

that S* 

which I have 

• - - * ’ 

' F . » r ■ ‘ • 

Owed hi 

anot her 4* 


NTiumi » riii 

1 ClKAVrftH 1 

8* I aim 



0U| it would scam to afford m of the Bower 

*u, seeing that the ntia i njo o*f QulUtq l nil t .% oi* the whole, the onif one# - 

obtained mm littlo more fg rmim iuf*>nn*titm, On the oil q band, if Q* 
aimaotipU t*» the theft of a servant, ho won Id only loo naturally prefer I Attribute th* m 

ti\»m this point of view, tho Mtnp» 0 $ of Qua* Tur& would ho ju*i what H 


+ 4 

But it is alsti possible that we have here a fatso trail it ion, that the aalo to an Hn gl i*h fn» n is An 
vn\ . nted itory, and that tho inference is perhaps rat her to a last which i Vtrovski aequ *1 and whah 

We must not forget that in consequence of Bower** discovery, Petrov ski 
9 eon u try, and their enquiries, by arousing the attention of the 
Mhvw, would tend to originate leg' Is. All that I wish to my is that Ihl traditional version of 

can 1>0 received only with a good deal of reserve, and that poariblv 

may now be in St Petersburg, 
and Macartney sent men into 

khe discovery of the Bower MS 

the manuscript came from Qutluq Urda. 


f^i) la a .subsequent English letter, dated Peking, 10th July 1909, addressed to 

me m response to a request for further information, M. Pelliot wrote as follow 

y < 

l nfort u i lately I have not come across anv new date since the time X wrote to the 
the letter yon allude to. [See No, x-] Qoutiouq Ourda is a ruined stupa, lying about 
to the west of the town of Kuchar, while the Qoum Toura J ltng-o% is about 12 mile 
on the left bank of the Mouzart Daria I am quite at a loss to decide between the 






versions I have collected for the discovery of the Bower Manuscript. It may just as well He true 

that i hoy were unearthed in the cave Bower was shown to. But it seems to be a well-established fact 

• S' ' 

that an important manuscript-lind was made in the Qoutiouq Ourda stupa some time before the arrival 

1 1 


* a 

f Captain Bower. I really cannot say anything more. 


(xii) M« Pollings concluding remark in the preceding No, xi regarding the 

’ , ■ 


-established fact of an important manuscript find in tho Qutluq Urda st &pa ** is 

■ • % 

' . 

< ' , 

in a letter addressed to me by Dr. A. von Le Coq, dated the 

, from which the following, translated from the German, is an extract : 

" c- 

i4 That a very considerable find of manuscripts was made in a stfipa in Kuchar appears to me to 
follow from the narration of the Russian (Andijani) Aqsaqal in Kuchar, Chat Muhammad. He showed 
me the pyramid-like structure near the town, north of the road to Gum Turii, from which, some 20 
rears ago, some people extracted the largest find of manuscripts, which, m far as I know, had ever 
been made. Possibly the Bower Manuscript was part of that find. To native statements, as a rule> 
no weight attaches ; but this man was the most honest of all whom I came to know in that place/ 1 

(xiii) From the careful survey made by 

H I* 

ion it 

as I learn from M. A. Barth (letters of the 3rd June and 22nd October 1909), that there 

are four stApas in the neighbourhood of the Ming-oi of Quin Tura. Their distribution 

is shown in the following extract from a letter to me of Dr. M. A. Stein, dated the 3rd 

December 1909 : 

“ The Qum Tura site, as far as I saw it on a gloomy winter day, consists of : 

(a) the caves on the left river bank, in two groups, close together, cut into the barren outer hills ; 
{6) a Kone Skakr, or “ ancient city, n about 1| miles to the south, near the right bank of the 
river, containing the ruins of a large monastery with one stupa in the centre, and another 
big stfipa ruin outside it to the north ; 

■ - 

■, v i ‘ -• _ • ■ '* . ,v • y 1 - >■ j_‘- ■ | ■ j •» \ • i •- . iftjj i t ■ I, , *• i ■ ’ i; * . * . f . y 

(e) the Sai'ai Tam ruin, about 1| miles to the south-west of (b), on the left bivnk of the river, 

‘ ' i 1 *_ _ n ' i | _ , > . . • * * j ~ ' 

consisting of a massive enclosing wall about 55 yards square with a ruined stupa in 

¥w ' , 

v'f - 

1 1 

>, and a fair 

z m one corjier. 

- ri 

u In addition 1 noticed some ruins, probably of temples, about 150 feet above the caves on a ridge of 
the l* i’i Hank. These I had no time to visit, and hence cannot say whether stupas could be distinguished! 

i i - ^ 1 

among mmm* n - 

- im 


V v.' v • 

■ - ■ »*’ 'j \ 


CsiArmii I ] 

1 N 1\lt ( hi iu ri on . 

that there was, howCTOt, ft large Nhipii among thorn, the fourth of 
from a letter of Dr. A. von Lo Coq, dated (ho 2l>th October l mm * 


> lint, appears 

“Stupas are the**.... Huwuc’h sfcrtomcmt* Wt likolyto ho correct; all U.o .t&flu arc m,,,« „ i 
ruined. Quin lura, ‘ tho (old) bnildiug in (,lto Sand ’ is u modem small settlement which takes^ 
name from an old (Buddhist , l.-mpl,. which hIuu.Ih on I gravelly alluvial Hat, [apparently Sar d Taml on 
the bank of the river where it dobourl.ns from tlm valley. On tl.e height, of the eastern [left] hank there 
stands, unless I am much mistaken, the principal sl.ftpa, I ,, ..r.ler to got to the Miny-oi one has to ride 
in the bed of the river (or on the ieo), I should nay the distance is about half a kilometer. 

In a later communication from Dr. von Lo Ooq, on the 16th November 1909, the 
following distances are given : 

“The distance from Quin Turn, to th* Tort [<>r the ruined building] on the ridge is about five 

kilometer [or about three miles]. Wo rode at the time over the ice t in the summer the distance may 

be a little greater. From the fui’.'i to tbo beginning of tho caves I should Bay the distance is about 500 
meters [or about 500 yards, see No. ii}," 

On the basis of tho above-given extracts from letters as illustrated by the Sketch 
Map, the Topographical Plan, and the View of Quin Turft, an attempt may now he 
made to determine what, in all probability, would seem to have been the true find-place 
of the Bovver Manuscript. In the first place, two misapprehensions must be removed 
which hitherto have prevented its recognition. It will be seen from the extracts 
Nos. x, xi and xii, that according to an admittedly well established native tradi- 
tion, current in Kuchar, a large find of manuscripts was made in the Qutluq Urda 
stupa ; and it is there suggested that the Bower Manuscript may have formed part 
of that find. Again, in Nos. x and xi, a rival version ol the tradition is referred 
to, according to which the Bower Manuscript was found in one of the caves of the 
Ming-ol of Qum TurA. Now this rival version is not a native Kuchar! tradition at all, 
but merely a mistaken view originally started by Buhler in his contributions to the 
Vienna Oriental Journal , Vol. V (1891), pp. 103 and 302, in which, after having 
read Lieutenant Bovver’s note (quoted in No. i), Buhler announced the discovery 
of the Bower manuscript to the learned world of Europe, as having been " obtained by 
Lieutenant Bower from the ruins of the ancient underground city of Ming-ol, near 
Kuchar in Kashgaria. ” On referring to that note, it will, be seen that Lieutenant 
Bower made no such statement. He says explicitly that the manuscript was <e dug out 
of the foot ol one of the curious old erections ” which stood “ just outside (or “ close 
to” as in No. iii) the subterranean city.” Biihler's misrepresentation is, in the 
circumstances, easily enough explainable, but it suggested what Lieutenant Bower 
explicitly states in his letter (see No. it) to be “a total misconception of the facts”; 
and unfortunately it has had the effect of obscuring the real facts to all subsequent 


The correction of Builder’s misconception practically disposes also of the other 
misapprehension regarding the Qufluq UrdA stupa. As may be seen from A os. ix, 
h and xii, that stupa is situated close to the town of Kuchar itself, that is to say, only 

f V- * M V \ x I fl V A ►-/ M t, V VB.V'V V V Ip-* . ' w — - — > — ~ T _ 

about one mile” (No. xi), or “about 5li” (No. lx) to the west of that town, and 
north of the road to (^um TurS. ; while the stupa, from which the Bowei ifanusci I 


ii» do^ to. 


1 fa * 1 ifc> 

-.._ v 


is to say iC 

$ ktiO^.KXct 4 

aoomtuu* to 

'- M lVVn,n. 

500 yards ” (No. ii), or “ about 
the Jling-oi of Qum Turft, and that Mmg-oi itself 

16 miles from Kucliar ” (No. i), or 


5 J 

so. xi) from the 

13 miles from the town of Kucliar. Clearly the 

t rati ssdm. that is 

„ L m mfm 1 l , 

sttkjp* of the Botrer Manuscript, and the sttipa of Qutluq Urda from which the Weber, 

♦ ifid POllV)TSkl maU USCn l>t S were ohtai n Afl fl.PA fwo ortfi^olv rlixjtinof elwnA. 

But tkc Extracts, above dvcii 

% - ' > 

Iieuten^ u Bower tells us 

50 feet 

*** %■ 

ish us with some further corroborative evidence, 
his stupa (he. j tlie stupa close to the Ming- o' i of 

Ihigh 99 

(No. iii). On the other hand, the stupa of 
wtt, which is described by M. Pelliot as a “ grand stupa ” (No. x), is stated 
b; Chinese Ambaa, who visited it at the end of the year 1894, to have been “about 
10 Cilunjr (or about 100 feet) in. height, and about the same dimension in circumference 
(No. ix). This ^ stand sfcftpa, 9 * therefore, in those days, was about twice the size of 

stupa of Qum Turn. Again the stupa of Qum Tura, according to both Lieutenant 
Lower and Dr. von Le Coq, stands right upon the (eastern or left) bank of the river 
Sh&hyar vNox iii, xiii), or Mazart as it is also called (No. xi), while the stupa of 
Qutluq TFrd& is described by Dildar Khan, in liis Urdft account, as standing “ at the 

apparently being to the “ low barren 111118 /’ 



t of a mountain >5 (Xo» vii). 

..f * 

alluded to by Lieutenant Bower in the account of his march to Qum Tura (No. ii). The 
topographical position of th two stupas, therefore, is quite different. There is a further 
dt ff eraace iu the dates of the opening of the two stupas. Lieutenant Bower obtained his 


earn ra 

w i* V ip 

therefore the stupa, in which it was found, was opened, at 
at year. In fact, as will be shown presently, it appears to have been 
opened only a few days previously. On the other hand, the Qutluq Urda stupa must 

as:, as eartv as 

have l 

opened in 1891, that is, 



t r *- 

* than the Qum Tura stupa. Eor 

when Mr. Weber obtained his manuscripts in June 1892, he was 
been found " the year before M (Nos. iv and 
therefore* an interval of a 

it L 


they had 

is to say, in 1891. There was, 
the openings of the two stupas, 
reen the year 1891 and the date of M. Pelliot’s visit in 1907, there is an interval 

The native tradition, at the time of his visit to Kuehar, made the interval 

one year 



to be 44 about a score of rears 

* * 

o. xl. 


was made about the same time to Dr. von Le Coq (No. xiii). As to this discrepancy, 

to Hr. Weber, is obviously more 


than the va^ue statement, in round numbers, of a much later oral tradition, which had 

no longer an exact recollection of the date, and which, in any case, would be inconsistent 
with either date, 1890 or 1891. 

s remark i hat the find in the stupa was made 
14 some, time before the arrival of Captain Bower 99 (No# xi) would seem to be merely 
a deduction from the statement ** about a score of years 99 in tlie native tradition, seeing 
the latter would work out about the year 1887, 

Lieutenant Bower’s visit. M 


* # 


Of , 


Lastly, there is a difference between the numbers of manuscripts which are reported to 



C two stupas respectively. The Bower Manuscript is the s 

On vim rh I I 

I N't imiIiUc I ION 

manuscript which is said to Jmvu bran faiunl in t|j () H j ( * 



I pH fil ! 0 11 111 /”KT^ 

On the ether hand, wdh regard to t l»o 4npn of Uutluq ( J nlA tf„. m ;r } ’ U ^* 

n \vu is amt a br$pmn%bm *>l manuscript* we.v, > dug out from i* (»,* vlu - 

tmm l,er WagaomctiaM* given as 25, and at other times «loub% cxaggeml^iiy) 

as 250 (No. x)* 

K1 The 1 facts above 

f ,. f . ,jk ™ 55 !t , ( l uit0 corta! « ftU the Bower Manuscript was not 

round in the stupa ol. <i<itluq Uni*, about one mile from Kuchar, but in a stupa dose to 

the Mmg-o'iui *ium lura, about Id (or 10) miles from that town. But further, it seems 

practically oertain that it was dug out from the si,, pa, on the ridge above the ca’ves, at the 

spot marked 0 on the l ••pographical Plan. Por this stupa alone can bo said to he “ close 

t o ” the Muvj-oi or “ just outside the subterranean city ” (No. i), tho other three stupas at 

Kone Shah r and Sami Tam being about 1.} to 2fc miles distant from the Ming-oi. 

Having determined what in all probability is tho true find-place of tho Bower Mann- 
script, we nitty now attempt to determine the exact time when it was discovered by tin; 
native treasure-seekers of Kuchar. For guidance we have the following data, supplied by 
Captain Bow er in the report of his travels in the Geographical Journal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical bociety , VoL V (1895), pp. 252 ff,, and illustrated by the annexed Sketch Map. 
A! Kuchar, Capfca u Bower tells us, no halted several days, and while staying there, he 
received, as related in Extract No, iii, the visits of a Turki who gave him the manuscript 
and guided him to its find- place, the stupa close to the main group of caves of the Ming-ol 
of Qum Turn. He started on this expedition about midnight of the day on which the 
manuscript was brought to him (Nos. i, iii). He reached the Ming-ol at day-break (say, 
about 5, Nos. ii, iii) of the following day. Here he spent some hours in examining 
the stupa of the manuscript, and some of the adjacent caves of the Ming-o : i f of the ap- 
pearance of which the accompanying photographs (Figs. 3 and 4), supplied by the kind- 

ness of M. Pel Hot ami Dr. 
von be Coq, give us gome 
■■■■■■■ done 

Fig. 3. 




Lieutenant Bovver went on 
to Faiz Abaci, where he spent 
the night* The next day, 
i.e., the second day after 
leaving Kuchar, he marched 
clown the banks of a canal to 
Charshamba Bazar, shooting 
on the way wild ducks that 
were on the canal. 

On the same day, or the 
day after, lie reached Shali- 
yar. On the 6th of March 
he left Shahyar on his return 
journey to K&shgar, which 
he reached on the 1st o;i 
April. These are the only two 
of this part of liis tour. 

View o a portion of ihe Ming-01 oi Qum Turn. 

definite dates mentioned by Captain Bower in the recital 


■ C 

I t 

" ot how ,0 »« HMlivAr lull. „M it u .,N m mmA viaii | 

place, ami as nothing that 
might have eaustnl a longer 
detention in mentioned, it 

f (hi 

* Ik 4, 


may be concluded that the 
6th of March was tlio day 
after his arrival in ShAhyftr 
from his visit to the Ming-o'i 
of Qura Tori. On the basis 
of this count, it was the 2nd 
or 3rd of March, on which 
Lieutenant Bower received 

the manuscript, and 



«F tfir* 



started on his visit to the 
Ming-oi. Now Lieutenant 
Bower states (see No. ii) 
that the Turki, who bro 
the manuscript to him 

he showed him where a hole had been recently excavated.* * It follows, therefore, that 
the discovery of the Bower Manuscript must have occurred a few days previous to the 

2nd or ord of March, Ghat is, on some day of the month of February of the year 


Having passed in review the evidence for what is probably the true find-place of 
the Bower Manuscript, and for the exact time of its discovery, we may now proceed to 
sketch briefly the course of events connected with the discoveries and vicissitudes of the 
manuscripts called after the names of Bower, Weber, Macartney and Pctrovski, so far as 
they may be deduced by means of a careful comparison and co-ordination of the state- 
ments quoted in the preceding extracts. There are some minor discrepancies in them ; 
but they do not affect tlic main lines of the story. 

In February 1890, two Turkis of Kuchar, searching for treasure, dug into the 
stupas which stand near the Ming-oi, or system of rock-cut grottos, of Qum Turft. In 
one of the stupas, they discovered the birch-bark manuscript, which one of the two men 
on the 2nd or 3rd of March 1890, sold to Lieutenant Bower, and which is now known 
as the Bower Manuscript (Nos. i-iii). The partial success of this enterprise apparently 
suggested to a number of men of Kuchar the attempt to break into the neighbouring 
great stupa of Qutluq Urda, which by its much larger size gave promise of the yield of 
much more valuable booty (No. vii). This enterprise, it appears, was executed some 
time in the early part of 1891. The story of the men as to what they found in the 
interior chamber of the stupa seems never to have varied in its main lines from that 
year down to 1907, when it was repeated to M. Pelliot (No. iv of 1892, Nos. vii 
and viii of 1898, No. x of 1907). Nor is there any good reason to discredit it. 
Interior relic chambers do not uncommonly occur in sift pas of Eastern Turkestan, as 
has been observed by Dr. Stein in his Ancient Ehotan , Vol. I, 


82 If. Such 

i It U'i i U \ j 


itomu 1MON 

t \ i 

» m 

I m P 

H 1 


interior chamber may hi 



(Mg, 5} to 

e oust o 

p ? g * i / 

1 huenar (hoc 

u*lrli Map) 

from a photo* 

aph taken 

by Dr* Stein, 


in ir nor relic 

clearly MV II, f,0 


joined vi< \v of the 

Fig f>. 

chamber In tin* Mauri Tim 
St&pa, near 

Dr, ?-■ 








g. ! «■>. How 


interest in f.lto meu^storv ii 




) num- 
ber of manuscripts, enough to 

fill a 8 hi 




ski t’* (No, vi U) , 


v li-w ui Hiuj)!nrr»5TiT3TiiTrm 

•m pofh{$ (aoo Tig. <5, p, xv ii), each tied between two wooden boards, and written 
m a MSripfc unknown to thrftaderi (No. x), that is, iu a Sanskritic, or Brakmi, script, 
riun were taken to tho house of tho QM» or headman, of Kuchar (Nos. vii, x), a Turki 

u (ifconi/at fisb&n, flio uncle ol a man. culled Timur Bog 38 (Nos. ix, x) • In his house 


i I V* 

lay about, uncared for, and suffering much injury at the hands of the children. 

to India, having shown his 
’, and to Mr. Weber in Leh, 

o meantime, Lieutenant Bower, on 

* 4 L * 


< ssrs. Macartney and Fotrovski in 

i hose gentlemen had instructed their 




s, i o ] 

outlook for similar discoveries with a view to securing them (Nos. iv, v, x). 



manuscripts m 

a/a soon 


generally in Kuchar. Among others the British and Russian Aqsaq&ls in that 

k once went t 

came to 

: it, 


(^azi s house to secure some portion of 
for f heir patrons. The British Agent, an Afghan merchant HHH 

m \ Lt 




Kuchar, named QAdir Kjj&n, obtained, only a couple of days after the manuscripts 

had been brought to 


zi, a few of them in two bundles, 

given to the servant of tho Qftzi (Nos. viii, x). 

Hi manuscripts thus obtained he transmitted to his brother, Dildftv Khfm. another 

, The latter sold, in the follow- 


« **« 

1802, one of the two 

s sy^ar, 

. This bundle has since been known as the Weber 

Mr. Weber, through Munshi Ahmad 

Dild&r K lian carried to India, no doubt with, the 





(, in 1805, <• 

i i, viii) ; and It has since been known as the 

”, viii) ; 


Russian Aq«wjfi I in 

■HI was Or. von }a 


»*ar, an 



m In No. viii the awnot in c^UmI V«<jub iktfg . II 
ifei’i t* n<>4 % terror, Yttfjulf uuy Imfvu ii 

son ol (jrct 


, secured another bundle 

Kiiiin, who way lmva b*«fc d««l l»y ti»«i 



[ Chapter I 

of more or loss injured manuscripts from the Qibu** house* which he transmitted to 
Mr, Betiwski in KAshg&r, and which now form the Petrovski collection in St. Fetors 
Inu^, As to what became of the remainder of the manuscripts in the house of the 
Q 'i/ij there is no certain information. The current opinion in Kuchar appears to be 
t hat, utterly neglected as they were in the house of the Q$ zi, they gradually got lost or 

• Some of them may, in the form of detached leaves, have subsequently found 
their way into the hands of Europeans; others may possibly, as Mr. Berezovski seems 

to believe (No. x)> still yield to persevering search. To the former class may possibly 
g some! 

?aves, which were given to Captain Godfrey in 1895 
Yarkand traders, and which are said to have been “dug up near 


apparently by s 

some old burled ci t;y in the vicinity of Kuchar.” Qiev belong to 

w W 4 O 

non bears the name of the Gculfrey Manuscript s 

The general truth of the native tradition respecting the condition of t he manuscripts 
at the time of their discovery, and their treatment afterwards in the house of the Qazi, 
is fully confirmed by the appearance of the Weber. Macartney and Petrovski Manuscripts 
at the time of their reception. At the latter date, they consisted of more or less dis- 
orderly bundles of damaged manuscripts in which a number of leaves of different mama- 

sermm were mixed up. Among the Weber and Macartney Manuscripts there 

were portions of manuscripts of which other portions are among the 
Petrovski Manuscripts. 40 This strikingly illustrates the ignorant neglect and careless 
treatment to which, according to Timur Beg’s story (see No. x), the manuscripts were 
exposed in the house of his uncle. According to that store, in the original condition in 
which they wore found, they appear to have been in more or less good order, each manu- 
script being tied up, in the ordinary fashion of an Indian pofhi, between two wooden 
boards (see No. x, also No. vii). The condition, in which probably they were found, may 
be seen from the photographs (Figs. 6 and 7, pp. xvii and xviii) of a manuscript, which 
was found by Dr. A. von Le Goq in a grotto of the Ming-oi of Qizil. As a matter of fact, 
among the Macartney Manuscripts both hoards of a manuscript were still preserved, 
though the manuscript itself was defective. Also the bundle of Weber manuscripts 
contained two single boards of different sizes, belonging to two different manuscripts, 
which manuscripts themselves were defective both in the size and number of their leaves." 
It is probable that at the time these two manuscripts were found, they as well as their 
boards wore in good order, and that they got into their present defective condition durin 
t heir sojourn in the house of the Q&zi. Similarly the Bower manuscript was found enclosed 

between two wooden boards (see Chapter II). Again, according to the native tradition 
reported to M. Pelliot (No. x), the dimension of the manuscripts was a 

inches (0'30 sur 010 metre). As a matter of fact, the Weber and Macartney Manuscripts, 
m their original condition, measured roughly from to 10| inehes in length*, 

and from to 4f inches in breadth. 43 This is as near to the traditional statement 
as, in the circumstances of the case, we nan reason »Dv u i._ 

l ? ' v > "'*‘** i of ianj-ai Avftttuh !J isvi* tfcVm Tfo\ l \fj 4 e* fe-ii ' f f fe 

**» 1 # U - 13 ; footaot. 33 , p. viii. Vot. 18 , h 0 7 ^ * ’ f* ' * * ' ' $ 

■ J ■ j ' 1 1 ■ , 1 J * / 1 1 ' r » J " i , L . . ‘ ■ 1 - ’ 



; MfcS 

- ' -./ ■ 111 - , i \ * : V' ‘ ■'■ -■ > ■' -'i. . 


•IN,- ^ 

• Tf: * - ' . r . . ■ , u ■ • 

> ' ' * i . iir~ % • L a E/J" ’ < r * 



* ' -* 

- ■ • t-' - V T - ^ . / /, 

If 1 

J ■ 

’ . -y* 

ifit" S '' 1 , '* 

' • • • ,V 

j *• ' 1 ^ * ' 

. • ? -. r , : i 

■r .* >!*-'# •. -■■■ - 

* ■ "V /jJJi •* / 

■* ' 

- • 1 L- . 1 -» •.*■•" * • ■ it 

. • ‘ - 

■, \- -,- 
?<- o’ 

R ir* .-w. *t ?. 

,X- flf •#.- ••••: ..*•• 

£-£ F? r, ■' 'w- ••> „ l rJ 

■ ' ' 

■i startto- 

^’V V. 

5 *•*■*-', J 

• 1 -. 

ii nr.snnmoN Of Tin 


The term “ Bower Manuscript % * knot 

in question is not really 


correct . As wijfl U 

t V ‘?i 

•v s. 

• 4 «r - 

V ib 

7 ■ ■ 


% *■ 

4 fcrs' * 

• 3 ! 


•fc - * * 

V**. - : ' : ‘ 


;A •■ 

,1V M 

rather a 
script itself, moreovet 


a mu r 


^■a smaller. The 



SIX s 

or is 

nr sens 

iUVvWU V* ” ll* VI* 4 a V/ili vMV wWV%»Wvii - 1 W #l*vi *\ a* % ** wivvr A 

Bower Manuscrij)!, tlierefore, in reality is a oollectiou of seven distinct manuscripts, 

" w * W ' “ * * * ■ * ■' * ■■■■■ ‘ ***W f “ XA ‘t is the terminology 

ma v 


man user! 


asent edition ; that is, Parts 1*1} 1, IV, 1) 

the li 

S eolleeti\ o Bower Manure riju is that of the Indian potkL 


A pdthi consists of a number of leaves, of a pvaet ically uniioriu oblong shape* 
fil ly on closed between two wooden boards * 1 “ 


in position, or 

9* ******* J Jf. P'.l- - " ' “ ^ 

by a string which passes through a hole drilled through the whole pile 



npt m 

found, or in which it was made over by the finder to 

in waicii h was 
But an idea of 

vti may 

path i 

string between its wooden 
boards, exactly as iiMHB 

found by Professor Griin- 

n m : cave 



In Pig. 7, the same 

pdthi is Bliown untied and 


Tlie leaves of the Bower 

anuscript are cut from the 
bark, or periderm, of the 

Pa (lit found in t lio Miiig-oi of Qitil. 

was palm-leaf or hirch-hark. 16 Palm-leaf must have been the original 

« Kr„m the KiunUrit puttaU, ormther piutiH, . . ,i.,,.iwion and 

m * trssr *- * ** : : » ^ 

"•tassssjcca,* . . i sv . « 

46 Occasionally they are still made of j,>ttlin*lotf( in [ IH-- ™ 

V*«t h 



« 4 i 


CitAnuK n 

Indian for it was 

row obtonir shape of tho 

Iho shape of tho palm-loaf whieh determined the vwtr 

! on v es o f l he pi Hk t Th e 
hark of the birch l ree may 
bo obtained in very large 

* O 

strips, about a yard long 
and eight inches broad. 
There is no apparent 
reason why these s fir B 


should have been cut i n to 
narrow oblong pieces in 
order to be used as the 
writing material of books. 
On the other hand, from 
the long narrow segments 
the leaf of a palm 
tree none but strips, at 
most about a yard Long 

* O 

and three inches broad, 

Fig. 7 

Tho same Put hi. {Oj>cncd»\ 

cut. These, if used as writing mi 
narrow oblong shape of the leaves of the 

iteriah necessarily determined the 


i ree 

the "Himalayan liirch,” is indigenous in the extreme North of India (c.g., in 
Kashmir), while the palm tree (Talipat, Corypka lunbraoulifora) is peculiar to the South 
of India. Hence ihe fashion of the Indian pdthi must have originated in ihc South 
of India, while the original “book” of the North of India must have been written 
on large strips of birch-bark. As a fact the oldest Indian “ book ” on birch-bark, the 
Dutreuil de Rhins Manuscript, which probably dates from near the beginning of our era, 
is written on such large strips. The Southern Indian fashion of the pdthi is, in many 
ways, more convenient for literary use ; and as evidenced by tho Bower Manuscript and 
by the other biroh-hark manuscripts which have been discovered in Eastern Turkestan 
(see Chapter IV), it must, at a very early period, have made its way into Northern 
India, whence finally it was carried, by the spread of Buddhism, to Eastern 
Turkestan, nearly all the indigenous paper manuscripts of which exhibit the narrow 
oblong shape of t he Indian pothi. At a much later period, probably after the advent of 
Islam and its western culture, the fashion arose, within the birch-bark area of Northern 
India to use birch-bark in imitation of paper, and to give to birch-bark books the shape of 
the paper books of the West. The Indian^/*? shape of tho birch-bark Bower Manuscript, 
therefore, is corroborative evidence of the great antiquity of that manuscript,— a point 
which will he discussed in detail in Chapter 1 1 

Che birch-baik loaves ol the Bower Manuscript, as already intimated, are of two 
different sizes. The leaves of Parts I-III, IV, V, and VII are considerably larger, 
both in length and breadth, than those of Part VI. Tho former measure about 11* by 2* 
luches ; the latter, about 9 by 2 inches. Besides the size of the leaves, there is 
another point vv hicli ditferentiates the two portions of the collective manuscript from 
each other. Tho birch bark of the larger portion is of a quality much inferior to that 

l I* ^ 

<;rn»i ti**A t h 



iz. 7 


Chapter II] 




of the smaller portion (Part VI), The former is hard and brittle, and apt to break if 
roughly handled ; while the latter is soft and tough and can readily be bent, 
difference may be duo to the age of the tree from which the bark was taken, 
as well as to the thoroughness of the process (probably boiling in milk or water) 
by which the bark was prepared for the reception of writing. Moreover, some of 

the leaves used in the larger portion were in a defective condition at the time 
when they were inscribed, while the leaves of Part VI were, and are still, in perfect 
order. For example, in Part I a large port on in the upper right corner of the third folio 
(see Plate III), affecting no less than six lines, had broken away, before the leaf was 
inscribed ; for nothing of the text is wanting. Similarly, in Part II, large holes 
bad broken into folios 25 and 26 (Plates XXVII and XXVIII), before they were 
written on. On the other hand, the defects in folios 9 and 12 of the same Part (Plates XIV 
and XVII) only occurred after those leaves had been inscribed ; for some portion of the 
text is lost* But there is also another cause to which the defective condition of the leaf is 
occasionally due, viz., exfoliation. Birch-bark, as writing material, is of varying thick- 
ness, consisting of several layers of periderm of extreme tenuity, numbering from two to 
twelve, or even more ; 17 one layer by itself won Id be too ten uous to be inscribed. When 
the bark is properly prepared, the process renders the natural adhesion of the layers more 
durable; but when it is imperfectly prepared, or when it is taken from a too old tree, or 
from an unsuitable part of the tree, the surface layers are apt to iiake oil, when the 
bark becomes thoroughly dry. In that condition, a leaf is unsuitable for writing. 
This may be illustrated by t ie blank reverse of the fourth folio in Part IV (Plate XLI), 
which distinctly shows the surface in process of exfoliation ; and it was, no doubt, 
for that reason that the scribe abstained from writing on it. For the same reason, 
apparently, the obverse of the fourth folio of Part V (Plate XI/VI) was left blank, 
the other hand, occasionally exfoliation took place after the leaf had been inscribed. 
Thus on the left of tlie reverse side o the thirty-third folio (Plate XXXIV) 49 of Part II, 
about one-fourtli of the surface layer has flaked off, carrying with It a large portion of 
the text ; and the same injury has befallen a smaller portion of the reverse of the twenty- 
ninth folio (Plate XXXI). On the obverse side of the sixth folio of Part V we have 
another example of the same phenomenon ; and in the case of folio 1 of Part A II (Plate 
LIII) the whole of the inscribed top layer of tlie obverse side lias flaked off. In ( lie third 
place, much of the bark, used in the larger portion, is full of faults in its texture. It 

appears to have been taken from an unsuitable part of the tiee, pioducing a rough 

for writing. This may be seen by reference, 


and knotty surface, unserviceable 

to the reverses of the first folio of Part II (Plate VI) and the second folio 

about one-half of which has been left blank. It is 

of Part IV 

(Plate XXXIX) 

* 7 Thus, o£ tlie five folios of Part 1, tlie first consists of 
two layers, the four others, off our layers each (Journal As. Soc. 
Beng., Yol. LX, 1891, p. 136). Of the fire folios of Part IY, 
the second has at least twelve, and the other, four layers each 
( Indian Antiquary Vol. XXI, 1891, pp. 329, 130). Of the 
four folios of Part VI, the first has t hree layers, the third, sis, 
and the two others, four each. Of course with good birch-bark 
it would not have been necessary to have a large number of 
layers to render tlie bark ins crib able : it was the inferior quality 
most of the bark which prevented a separation of the layers 
in unlace rated portions of sufficient dimensions to admit of 


being used as writing material (see Journal , As. Soc. Bong.* 

Vol. LX, 1891, Part I, p. 137). 

48 The blankness is not due to the spots ; that need not 
have interfered, as may be seen from the obverse ^ foho2o 
Part III (Plate XXX YI). -The leaves and pi ate S of 1 art V me 
wrongly placed ; for w Leaf 6, Plate XLVI ie * 

Plate XLI i I” and shift toe others accordingly. 

18 The number 33 which is seen 'f 

on Plate XXXIV i» not original : it was in*. 


J NT Hi)! MM TiON 

[C» 4^1531 |j 


it 2 It 

across a 

ho mo tin mi w lion the scri) )o n i, 1 *m\ pi ed to 

V), w here 


h letters would form only Tory badly, an, 0 t f n |n l 1 art (, folio 

not form at $M 

> Id (of f id) ig aln 

% «i or 

and the writer was obliged to a 


a j blip umshedpetter, and| trace it &mw 
on the other side of the fault, thus leaving a more or less extended gap in \m Hus. 

wo have mmi\4a\ird $ folio 8d*, j>{v&}nUnk4mah 


> m 

I, folio ik 7 (Plate 
e V), ry«[t?a] vdydchcha^ win 

?re the abandoned h 
indicated by being placed with in brackets (Journal, As. Hoe, Ben 

9 O * 


n t 

Voi L X 

* * 1 



5 ^-XhA 

7, 8, 22, 27, 29, etc 


» * T ^ i-4 

,4, - 

io 3 (Plate X: 

I), and in Part V 


2 and 6 (Plates XLIV and XL VIII), which show large uninscribed places. None of these 

bark of Part VI, which is of the proper texture, and has been 

is seen in 

The fact of the larger portion of the Bower Manuscript being Yvritten on birch-bark 
of such an inferior quality, of course, suggests the enquiry as to what may have been the 
cause of it. So much seems obvious that, as Kashmir and Udyaita are the lands 
of the birch and birch-bark, the scribes (on their number, see 

portion of the Bower Manuscript would not have had recourse to an 



i mfr 

bark, if at the time o:f writing it, they had not been, for some reason, in a position 
made it impracticable for them to procure a supply of good bark. 


most oovious 

itself, of course, is that when they wrote their manuscript, 
they were already settled in Kuchar, where fresh birch-bark prepared for writing was 
not readily procurable, for which reason they were reduced to the necessity of using up 
what inferior portion remained to them of the store of birch-bark which t hey may hare 
originally brought with them from their home in north-western India. But by the 
time that Part VI came to be written, a fresh supply of good and well-prepared bark 

had been procured. 

One of the indications of the collective character of the Bower Manuscript, as 
has been stated, is the mode of pagination which it exhibits. For the leaves of each Part 
are numbered separately, so far as can be judged from the numbering where it is 
preserved. In Indian pdthis the practice is to number, not the pages, but the leaves ; 
and the numbers are placed on the left-hand margin, either on the obverse or the reverse 


is thus numbered, while in soutnern manuscripts, it is the obverse.** in Parts 1\ 
V the margins are so imperfectly preserved that it must remain 

-■ ptm I i rt 1 * 2 t rt 1 * 

.w „ - f . * ■ - - ™ — ~ ~ ~ ~~ TIBg 

7 M 

they ever bore any numbers. The practice of 
general in Indian manuscripts that, on the whole, the 

ever, is 
in favour of its 

having once 

existed in those Parts at the time when the margins were entire. In Parts 

I— III and VII the margins of most leaves are 
usual pagination oa the reverse side of the leaf, t 
place of origin. Part VI, the margins of wliicl 
throughout ; and, what is noticeable, the numbers 

leaves. That fact points to a southern place of origin, and this indication is 0011 

S *«*£> 

side of 




See the Vienna Oriental Journal^ Vol. VI, p, SJ6J, quoted in Chapter III., p. Axxii 


Chav f*a iJ I 


. r ~*~ r v v«>y,^* H ut 

anfortunnU'ly the ui«w impoitnnf portion of it, Pail * l— HI, which in»u of ,a...liciii«, 

llow many more 

The tobrl of H>« existing leaves of Mm Boww Manuscript is ttfly-oi,,,. 

A. . 1 ,K. 4 I a . V am I lit . s«# >% .. 4 w. J * . ^ A li Tl I a VAC s S . 


P*rt I ends quite abruptly with the lift It folio. 
|||MB- complol od the loxt, it is 

. ..|HHVHNVI I to conjecture from ' the context, 

existing live leaves are numbered consecutively from 1 to 5. The obverse of the first 

Iflfrf , as usual in. Indian prith/s, is left blank. In the loft "hand margin of ilm reverse of 

i lie third leaf, there appear, below the ordinary pagination ;{, two other signs of doubtful 

value. If they are to be read as separate numeral figures, they might, be 51 • or if they 

are to be read as a single figure, it might be an imperfectly (».<?., disoontinuously) written 

40 or 70. But in either case tlieir purport is a puss/de. 61 Part II also is a fragment ; for 

it ends, apparently abruptly, with the 33rd folio somewhere in the fourteenth chapter- 

Moreover, the two final chapters, the fifteenth and sixteenth, which are announced in the 

introduction (verses 8 and 9, p. 77) are entirely missing (see note 497 on p. 1806). 

In addition, the entire folios 20, 21 and 30, and the major portion of folios 16 and 17 

are missing. Also, as previously stated (p. xix) , smaller portions are missing, by fracture 

in folios 9 and 12, and by exfoliation in the reverses of folios 29 and 33. The 

Mtal number of the existing leaves, inclusive of the two fragmentary folios 16 and L7, is 

thirty. In the case of most o! these existing leaves, vis., in folios 2—10, 12, 13, 15, 

22 26, 31 and 32 (total 19;, the ordinary pagination is fully preserved. It is only 

partially preserved in the five folios 16, 18, 19, 28, 29 ; and it is entirely lost, by fracture 

or exfoliation of the margin, in the six folios 1, 11, 14, 17, 27, 33. On folio 13 (Plato 

XV! fl) there is an indistinct mark between the figures for 10 and 3, apparently 

the cancellation of another wrongly inscribed figure. The pagination is placed as a 

rule in the middle of the margin, but in folios 25, 31, 32 it appears in the top os the 

margin, facing tue tmra or loursu une or um oox.ii; aim *■> uuu« u«.vu 
position on folios 1, 11, 27, where the top of the margin is mutilated. 68 

Part II I, again, is a mere fragment. Its commencement is marked, as usual, by 
the sacred symbol of dm, on the obverse of the first leaf ; but it breaks off abruptly on 
the obverse of the fourth leaf. But the noteworthy circumstance is that it breaks off, 
not at the bottom, but in the middle of that side of the leaf. This circumstance 
certainly suggests that the original scribe left off writing at that point, and never 
completed his work. Subsequently, the manuscript came into the possession of the 
writer of Part IV, who commenced the writing of that Part on what was then the blank 
reverse of the fourth folio of Part III. Ultimately the whole manuscript, that is, the 
unfinished Part III and the subsequently added Part IV, came into the possession o « 
third person, viz., the writer of Parts V and VII, who proceeded to write a rwnar 

own on the space left blank by the original writer on the lower poi tion . °T * . 

the fourth folio of Part III (Plate XXXVIII). This curious case will be the 

further consideration with additional details in Chapter III (p. xxxv d’ w er . • 
shown that the writer of Part III must have written also Parts I and II. In o_ 

with this latter circumstance the query suggests itself whether ** ^ amp into the 

than Part III, might not have been incomplete at the time when Part III came into the 

51 The figure*, or figure, cannot well refer to the number 
the corresponding verse in the text, as doubtfully sug- 
gested ifn note 57 on p. 5 of ioy edition. 

» Tho numbers marked on the 'for 

and 33 are not original, but -ere by my 
guidance. (j 




ixxssossion of flu- writer of P»u-t« V-V 1 1 ; 1 1ml. in to my, t)mf r|iv,mI iV at 

A * M J i .R j j 

1 TT * * - ' w ttjftt tillU! p &f i • 

ana ll extended uo further limn they da at present. It might, bo feurnnvrd 1 

the scribe who mode I he ISOpies ol I'nrK l-lll died before he hud ReiKlicd bin lank ^ ^ 
that hid unfinished copies parsed on, in turn, to the writers, or ownor#, of Part i? ' 
Parts V and VI T. There is nothing in the Parts concerned todeeidcmio way or Mh otTf^ 

♦bout- this hypothesis, but in any cast* the hypothesis has no concern whatever n itli 11 
losses ol iols. 21, 22 and 150 of Part It, or the fractures (/ /., of fols. 10 and ]?) 

exfoliations which have been referred to. Pm* injuries of an exactly similar kind , 
observable in everyone of the Parts of the Bower llanuscript, with the exception nf 

VI which is written on birch-bark of a superior and durable quality. All these 
injuries occurred at a date subsequent to the hypothetical transmission of Parts I and II 
to it s later owners. The second of the four folios of Part III is the only one which bears 

In the others the margin is defective. 


Of Parts IV and V, which arc two tracts on divination, the former is practically 

detc, 53 while the latter seems to be considerably defective (see Chapter VIII). Neither 

of them shows any pagination. As they are very small manuscripts, of five (strictly four and 
a half) and six tolios respectively, it is possible that they never had any ; hut as the margins 

are more 

re or less detective, the numbers may be lost ; and this alternative seems more pro- 
bable. The obverse of the first leaf of Part V is blank, just as in the case of Paid I. ■ 

reverse is inscribed only with the introduction to the treatise, which does not cover tee 
whole of its surface. It bears only Jive lines, and there is a blank space left, sufficient for, 
at least, one' additional line : all the other leaves have six or seven lines to the page. 

Part VI, which is a treatise on a charm against snake bite, is complete. Being 
written on a superior quality of birch-bark, it is the best preserve! portion of the Bower 
Manuscript. The left-hand margins of ali its four folios are in good condition, and bear 
the pagination, 1 to 4, on the obverse sides. The manuscript commences with the usual 
symbol for dm on the obverse of the first Jeaf, and ends with the usual Buddhist terminal 
salutations and the double stroke (Chapter IV, p. xxxviii) on the top of the reverse of 
the fourth folio. 

Part VII, which contains a portion of the same charm against snake bite (see 
Chapter III, pp. xxx and xxxvi and Chapter VIII) is defective. It consists of tw o, much 
damaged, leaves, the first of which, on its reverse side, bears the pagination 1. The 
obverse has lost its inscribed surface layer of bark(p. xix), and with it the commencement 
of the charm. The pagination of the second leaf is lost with the broken-off margin. 

Indian manuscripts, or records, as a rule, commence with some benedictory word 
such as siddJiam , success, or svasti , hail, or with the sacred particle dm. The last men- 
tioned is almost universally used at the present day. It may be either written in full, or 
indicated by a symbol. The latter takes the form of a spiral which may turn either to 

right or the left (Pig, 8) and which is probably a 
conventional representation of the sacred Samklia or 
conch shell. The dextrorse form may be seen on the 
first leaf of Part 1 (Fig. 8a), Part II (Pig. 8 b and 
t*)j and Part III (Pig. 8 d), while the sinistrorse form 
appears on the first leaf of Part IV (Pig, 8e)> and 








Fig. 8 






. * 

Modes of writing 



On l’art IV see my article in tire Journal, ABB., 181)2, p* 121). 

Chapter II | 

INTHOD 1 < I Iun. 

* # %■ 

X X 1 1 1 

Part VI (Fig. 8/). In Paris V and VTI it is lost through Mm diimago, suitor^ by thinr 
first folios. In till the Parts, except the second, the symbol oecupirH the usual position 
facing the first line of the text ; but in Part 11 it appears in the more UttCWUnl position, 
on the left-hand margin, opposite the third lino of writing, exactly as it is seen in the 
two copper-plate grants of Ananta Varman, dateablo probably in the sixth century A.D. 
(fig. Sg, h), shown in Dr. Fleet’s Gupta Imonpilou % pp. 220 and 228, Plates xxxB and 
xxxiA. Among the dated northern Indian epigraphioai tCOOrds of the Gnpta period, the 
earliest known examples of the dextrorse form of the symbol are those, of the year 448-9 
A,D. in a stone inscription of Kumara Gupta I (Fig 8 i, see ibid., p. 45, Plato viA), 
and of the year 493-4 A.D. in a copper-plate grant of «T ayan&tha (Fig. 87c, see ibid,, p. 120, 
xvi). The earliest known example of the sinistrorse form occurs in a copper-plate 
grant of Maha-sadevaraja, of an unknown though early date (Fig. 87, ibid p. 198, Plate 
xxvii), and apparently, though mutilated, also in the BodhgayA, inscriptions, of 588 A.D, 
{ibid., Plate xliA and B). Of course, those dates are not sufficiently numerous io settle 
the exact beginning’ and end of the period of the use of the two forms ; hut on the whole 

the sinistrorse form seems to be somewhat later in origin, Curiously enough, the symbol 

for dm, in its dextrorse form, is found also on the obverse side of the 32nd leaf of Part II, 

on the left margin, opposite the second lino of writing, How it comes to he there is, at 
present, not apparent. 

As already observed, the typical Indian pdihi is provided with a hole for the 
passage of the binding string. At the present day, the hole is placed exactly in the 
middle of the leaves; audit has been so during many centuries past. In the Bower 
Manuscript the hole is placed in the left side, about the middle of the left half of the 
leaf ; about 3} iuches from the left margin of the larger, and 2£ inches, in the case of 
the smaller folios. There are reasons to believe that the latter practice was that which 
prevailed, in ancient India. In the old Indian copper-plate grants, the copper leaves are 
strung together on a copper ring which passes through a hole in the left side of the leaves. 84 
The oldest known copper-plates of this kind are those of the Kondamudi grant of 
Jayavarman (Mpigraphia Indica , Yol. VI, p. 316) and the Pallava grants of King 
^ivaskanda Varman {ibid., Yol. I, pp. 4-6, 397 ; Vol. VI, p. 84), which, on paleographic 
and linguistic grounds, must he referred to the second and (bird centuries A.D. respec- 
tively. 83 They have their ring-hole near the middle of the left half-side. They arc all 

South Indian grants ; and seeing that, as already pointed out, the oblong form of the 

* * 

ivi This is the general practice ; but there are exceptions in 
various directions. Thus exceptionally the hole is found in the 
bottom margin. A very old example, from the third century 
A.O., is the Pallava grant of Queen Charuddvi ( E pi gr aphid 
Indica, Vol. VIII, p. 141). Two other examples of the 7th 
century are the Cbiplun grant ol Pulikesin II ( ib. t Vol. Ill, 
p. 52), and the Nausari grant of SryMraya (ib., Vol. VI If, 
p. 232). Occasionally there are two holes at the bottom, e.g,, 
in the 5th century the Ganesgnd grunt of Dhruvasdna I ( ib. f 
Vol. Ilf, p. 320) and the HMiyd grant of Dlmvardna II 
(Fleet's Gupta Inscription a. No. 38, p. 168, Plato xxi v) ; 
in the 7th century the Samkheda grants of Pad da III 
{Epigraph i a Indica, Vol. II, p. 20 and Vol. V, p, 40), and t he 
Nogawa grant of Phruvasena II {ib., Vol. VIII, p. 192). 
Another early practice, which however appears to be limited to 
a particular Central Indian province, is to place the hole in the 

top margin of tho plates, as in the Kh6h grants of Hast in and 
other princes (Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions Nos.22, 2o, 2/ , 28, 80, 
31 , Plates xiii, xv, xvii, xx). Lastly tho h# is occasionally 
found on the right side. Tho earliest example of this appears to 
bo the Patyh&n grant of tho Uilsh(raki\ta king Oovinda III, of 
794 A.D. {Epigraphia Indica , Vol. Ill, P* I0S)« But tho 

overwhelmingly favourite practice throughout ancient India? 
and at all times, is to place tho hide on the loit side. 
m These grants are written in Prdkrit, iftd the spelling m 

Jayavaman's grant (single for double consonants), ^ ,0 
Hult/scb lms pointed out ( Epigraphia Mm, 

i h exactly like that in the records of tho Andhra kings . ^ 

mipntm and Viisisldhtputrai whose elates are e. t * . 

3 S»* ***** rrxiS 

the writing oth‘‘ i wise resembles that of 

Aeemliflgfe they can be WA g •“<»*> » l,uut * ^ nt,,,jr 


tt A I* i'Kli It 

earliest birch* hark pdt 


imitation of the palm 

s&en iii the Bower Manuscript, i# 
f of Southern India, It may he cone 



men t 

string-hole in southern manuscript polktk wa> the same as in 


< Hi 

eoppa>|datc grants, and that the practice of placing tin string hole in the middle of t] i( 
left half of the manuscript was adopted hy the northern scribes from their southern 


n * "bom, in fact, they imitated in the whole mode of fashioning the psHhi, 
the earliest birch-bark manuscripts of the fourth and fifth centuries show their string 
hole on the left side. But as birch-bark (aa well as palm-leaf) is a more or less ira-J 

practice soon aro 4 ^ for the greater safety of 
in the right and 

cs, to nu 

two hoi 


, at corresponding distances from the right and left margins, 
earliest known examples of this practice are presented in 

>ee Anecdote Oxomemia, YoL I, Part III, Plate I) and the two Nepalese manuscripts 

of the Cambridge Collection, Nos. 1702 and 1409 (see BendalPs Catalogue, Plate I # 

Rga* I and 2), all of which probably belong to the sixth century 


of replacing the two holes by 

hole in the middle of the leaves. The 


of this practice is recorded by Alberuni in 
(Professor Sachau’s Tram 


Nation of Alberuni’s India, Vol. I, p. 3 70) that 

bind a book of palm-leaves toget her by a cord on which they are arranged, the cord 

going through all the 

bv a hole in the middle of each.” The hole w as not at first 

ddle, but — probably a modified survival of the 


more to the left, as seen, eg., in the N 

Society), which is dated in 1015 A.D. Still later, and in the present day 
in the exact middle of the leaves. 

of the st ring- 

of the left side of the Bower Manuscript, therefore, is an evidence 
antiquity of the manuscript. 1 * 

Unfortunately it has never been recorded in what condition the Bovver Manuscript 

was w 

:t WH 

by Colonel Waterhouse in Calcutta in September 1890, When 

it came 

in February 1891, the leaves of the pot hi were enclosed bet ween its 

two wooden boards, and a string 

through them. In order to examine the leav 

I cut the s 

and, on doing so, discovered that they were not arranged in their proper 

order, but that the leaves of the a 

parts were mixed up (see Proceedings , Asiatic 

Society of 

gal, 1891, p. 5 

How they came into this state of disorder is not 

known. It does not seem probable ihat they 

* • 

so origin 


was discovered by its Kuebari finders. The people who enshrined it in its receptacle in 
HHHHHHHflH to i have been able to read it; 

stupa may be 




l it in a disorderly condition. But from the time of its discovery, it passed 

r of, at 

of whom may be assumed with 

■■■ to have cut or unloosed the string to satisfy their curiosity, and none of whom 
knew, or could read the chara c te rs. In the case of Babu Sarat Chandra Das this is 

it, * 

certain ; for he slated 

se w ho had first given him the manu 


script to examine, that he had failed to decipher it (see Proceeding s } As. Soc. Beng., 1890, 
pp, 222-3). Moreover two of the 

the HB 

W m- H* 1 * 

ibid., Plate III) by Colonel 

came into my hands. It may, therefore, be 

ii art AV 

U the JtmnwO, A*, go c. Beng. f Vol. 1»XX, Part I, for 1901, 

l f»p. 7, S. 




>>>. ■ 


able that the serious damage 

incautious handling by the 

the leaves seem 

string or any 

reached the bauds 


(1890, p 

kl » j'A 

' i* 


in rnom » rioN 


manuscript arose 

seems not at ail improb 

‘■no t olios 10 anti 1/ of Tart II may be due to 
Tucki finders in Kuchar. After each examination 

string, whether the same original 

this bound condition when they 

be expressly 

the Asiatic Society 

y ’ iScXj 

X X V I 

i i'W 
.1 1 

b- - 

f- ■ 

> v ; •. ■, 

;■'• • I. - L ,-i . 




Jt - y 






A gli 



shows at once that all t . 

seven Parts 


•' * t ’ f ■ 

• * v* 

; are w 

m an 



K ■* ' ' ' V" J,r ' ■ 

Sft.rt ' ■ 

f -■*»—. 

-:i l • 

* r ; V 



tlio fact, which will be 


iden i al scrij 

of a dirersitv of 


script is strikingly 


same sli& 

in the forms of such consonants 

as k, r f 


from the 

II, Nos. 5, 7 

and such vow efe m 


to the sixth 

A. D. 

known as 

whose epigr 

the Corpus 

volume may be 

inclusive). It is now goner: 

it is 

of the 

volume of 






seen in 


During the period of approximately three centuries 




heir areas being separated by a line 
between X. Lat. 24' and 22 \ At Manda* 



side by 

v m 

both types of the script. From the dates of these inscri 


1 ex 1st 

V ^ ~ * 

seen that, in every case, the records of the southern are earlier than those of the northern 



writing in the 

ards of the fashion of 




nil of the letter m (Fig. 9). 
r, in the so-called jMmjkm 


Fig. * 

/ w # 

Gradually the curve at the base was flattened, and the point of crossing 
1 * PJ1 , more or less, to the right. In this £ -- — - 

a a si 





In the north-west of Indi; 




first it 


■ ■ J i.-. ■ *•- 


only the right side of the 

t' • /; , 

quite straight ; and m consequence 
the crossing point. Thus arose 

w r as 

$7 Volume III, Inscriptions of the Marl y Gupta King, 
and their Successor* t edited by l)r. J. F. Fleet, C.I.E., 
in 1888. A few additional inscriptions, discovered after that 
data arc published in the JSpigrapkia fndica. These two 
cations are qu ted in the sequel as F.GI,, and E.I. jvs* ; 


Font is of the 
Utter j*. 

Soon also the 


Ikadasor, oerthero type, FAST., K&s. H 

A.D., and southern type* F.G 1 , No. IS, dat^l 
A.D. Siss, aorihem, F.dl, Kit*, IA 3 A * dated 468, 

508 Air, and sou them, F»GI... He. A dated FTO A*U> 
. Jd» uorthera, No* dl* dated 0$ A.0.# WM 

Wrthmi, F.GI , XvN 3 t m A. LX 


PM'* ' 1 ‘ 

rSl ^ 1 

■ v* ■tu ts • c ; ►? «*V.- .. 

V* - - 1 *1^ ‘ y*V I 

. V/* 

, V I, 

M I 

A i 

> r iH 

Ohapxmsr III] 


the character for m 


*)» gradually 
second of tlx 

throughout the Gupta period (Table 
spreading eastward over the whole of Northern India. From tho 

northern Gupta forms of in, developed, at a later time, the N^ari f onn i a \ 

1 variety (/), by the production of the right lateral below 11m base Me 

The origin of the northern form of the Gupta m must be placed in the earlier hall' d 
the | four tii century A.D. ~ 

its ring 

tlie East 

" P 11 coins and in tlio records of Samudra Gupta the older form \ 

id sides (Tig. 9, a b) is still exclusively prevalent. But with, his sou 

gupta II, who added the West to the empire, a total change takes pi 


p ai ’ hu o point of tho Gupta empire (PAtaliputra) was m 

m t « i . . * in of m, with 

its curved sides (lug, 9, a b) is still AvoWiVm,r ■».,*. . 


and records show only the forms of m with straight sides (Fig. 9, c d). He commenced 
to reign about 3/5 A.D.; and he completed his conquest of the West about 395 A.D 
His earliest known dated inscription of 407 A.D. (F.GL, No. 7, p. 36) shows the 
straight-sided . m, Its locality Gadkwa, Lat. 80° 38', is just within the eastern area. 
Another of his inscriptions, within the western area, at Mathura, Lat. 77° 43', which also 
shows the straight- sided m (F.GI., No. 4, p. 25, f late iii A) is mutilated and hence 


dated ; but it may be some twenty years older. Anyhow, the fact that the straight-sided 
m show s no signs of a gradual origination or introduction, but with Ohandragupta’s western 
conquests, all at once, entirely supersedes the older curved-sided form of in in the records 
throughout the northern portion of the Gupta empire, proves that, at the time of that 
conquest, it must have been the established and prevailing fashion of writing m in tho 
north-west of India, The beginning and growth of that fashion in the North-west itself, 
therefore, may with good reason be placed in the earlier half of the fourth century, 
though, of course, in calligraphic records of a particularly ornate kind, such as 
the Bijayagadh inscriptions of about 372 A.D. (F.GI., Nos. 58, 69, pp. 251-2, Plate 
xxxvi B, G), the old form of m with its angular or curved sides, might (end to survive 
for some longer time. The only form of m, prevailing throughout the whole of the 
Bower Manuscript, in its calligraphically as well as cursively written portions, is the 
earlier of the two north-western forms, with its right side straight, but the left side 
twisted (Fig. 9, c ; and Table I). So far, therefore, the graphic indications of the manu- 
script point to some time within die fourth century A,D. At any rate, they need 
not carry its date back of that century. 

The northern type of the Gupta script, again, is divisible atatwo distinctly marked 

varieties, an eastern and a western, 
letter is the character for the cerebral sibilant sh, as compared with the character for the 
dental sibilant s . The original forms, in the Asoka alphabet, of these two characters arc 
shown in Fig. 10, a and / respectively. The form of the 
former was soon modified, as in (&), by closing up the 

With regard to this division the most useful test 

Fig. 10. 

\3 * V 


i * « « 

lower semicircle. In the East, gradually that semicircle 
was made to oulge out on the left, as in (<?), and finally 
reduced to a small ring let, as in (//), while the u o&i 
it was simply more or less angularized, as in (#). On the 
other hand, in the case of the dental s (/ }, its basal curve 
was angularized iu the East, and tit f tie same time its tail 

closed up to form a ringlet, as in (g), while in the ||pH m 

angularized, a triangle taking the place of the ringlet, as in (A). Ihe final icsult oi 




Forms of tlic cerebml ami dental 


the W 

\v ; i s 

* + JC 

XXV ill 

INTi;ui»n< tion 

I v 

‘■U [I 

f, 1 U 

\ 11 

<o ciittse the forms of lli<> cerebral f,. n ,i 

lants, (d) and (g ), I o resemble each other so closely tun lo miiko tlicm j>ract,i « ki |]' * * • h **,'** 

*ho^t>vo iibilanti remained qijJtfi 4 

It may be added that the western form of tho dental sibiltuitMeurs in Hovcml kIs 

5 111 

ivSt t, i 

of angularity. 

in (A), (i) and (A), none of which, however. aflWu 


F 1 / 

Hie boundary of the western and eastern areas runs rough ly along g, bang, Hr 

sambhi (Long. 81° 27') we have inscriptions in both varieties of (lie no rt hern C u 1 1 
side by side: the western variety in the Pali land grant Ml., Vol. II, », gfrt 

.J-X-A x • 11 . ... « ^ . / *' ^ *' % 

the eastern in the pillar inscription of Si 

a, now m 


ho. 1, p. 1, Plate i), and in the K6»sam image inscription (F.UL No. (55, p, %% 

\ Similarly, we find the western variety in the image inscription <>\ 
81° 51/, F.GL No, 68, p. 271, Plate xl 
variety in the image inscription of Mankuwar (Long. 81 

xii AY. and in the 1 T1 SfVPl Tvf.l ATI C ,4T\ urtV /T r,s Ol 1 Q'' ■ If / IT Xf/.n ^ (j j 

As the Net) 


, 40, 

, Plates iv B,I), and xxxix B,D). 

» — — 7 *"/ ’ , «**vy lieu, 

eastern area, all the Nepalese inscriptions at, or near, K&tm&ndft (Long. 


85 - exhibit the eastern cerebral sh (Fig, 10, d), but cxceptionally^^^^^^^^l 

distinction of the two sibilants by using the western angular dental s (Fig. 10, h) 
Throughout ” 

variety of t 




and as will be shown in the sequel the probability is that Parts I- III were written in the 
extreme north, and Parts V-VII, in the extreme south of 

i) by scribes coming from those localities.* 

The western variety of the northern type of the Gupta script itself possessed twe 
sub-varieties. The distinctive feature of these sub-varieties is their 
writing the palatal sibilant s, either with a curvilinear or 

^fPhe successive stages o££ 

Fig, ft, 

a a a 



Form, of the Palatal Sibilant 

•lined top. 

of the form of this sibilant are shown in Pig. I. Originally, 
in the AS6ka script, it bad the form (a). 

perpendicular line assumed a slanting 

in (5), till finally, in the Indo-scytbic period, in the Kusliana 
century A.D., it became more or less horizontal, as i] 
in the early Gupta period, in the fourth century A. 
which, flattened, the rounded top into a straight line. 

the round-topped and the flat-topped, however, were not restricted 

a particular period of time. They existed contemporaneously during the Gupta period, an< 
in the same common area. An instructive example is the group of klandasdr inscriptioi 
of YaAbdharman (F.GI. Nos. 33, 34, 35, pp. 142, 149, 150, Plates xxi B,C, xxii) 
which were written by the same scribe, named G&vinda (ib., p, 146), about 633 A 

*• Exceptionally the eastern variety is found in two 
inscriptions as far west as 

Ho. 32, p. 139, Plate xxxi A), and Udayagiri (Long, 77° 60' 
P.GI. No. V- 24, Plate iv A). 


( 0 14’: 

g Bee 

)ts may be seen in j 
mdvi) of No. 3, p. 107 jH 

n, Vol. XI, p. 163 ff. Tb« **« 

in 1. 1$ 


^ - i 

f ace i'(ige xzviti 

Jr ' f * ' 

fit -t ■ l V 


1 c 

I . . 

A' "i 

£1*'. » 


form oi 



bout Ilia three records * 

i user 


* . 4 ,'A* ' 


.•a a :>*-;• - 

He use* the flat*! 
the writer | oj|th6 1 somewuai earner J i 

autlof tbeyvai* V. D., uses Mu' round-topped £ throughout (F.GI No* 18, p. 71), Plate 

xi). (food examples of the use of 

O- ,? 

and the stone image inscription at Matkuift 
262, Plate xxxix A)* dated in 45 L-5 A.D, 

A I 



-topped £ arc the cave inscription of Udayagm 

(L&t 23° 32 , Long. 77* 50'), dated in 425-6 A.D. (F.GL No. 61, p. 258, Plate xxxviii), 

IT 43; F.QL No. m, p, 

examples of the use 

of the round-topped 4 are the copper-plate land-grants of the Parivraj&ka Maharajas, ai 
Khdh, Majhgawam, and Bhumara (about Lat. 24° 25' and Long. 80° 45'; F.GJ. Xus 21-25, 
, 93-112, P lates xiii, xiv, xv B), which are dated between 475 and 529 A.D. These 

examples show that the two forms of the palatal £ were in use over the .same western 
area, and during the same period of time. 

But there is one point to be observed with regard to the use of the two forms of 
the palatal s> which is of great importance in connection with the Bower 
The two ways of writing that s are never confounded, nor do they ever occur promts 
cuously in the same epigraphie record. It is clear, 
different styles of writing, each peculiar to a particular writer. I 
for determining the number of writers who were engaged in the production or the 
several Parts of the Bower Manuscript. As may be seen by reference to Table I, the 
round-topped £ is used exclusively in Parts I-II1, while the flat-topped s is, equally 

in Parts I\ r -VII. In Parts I- III, the flat-topped $ never occurs, 

s ever occur in Parts IV-VII. It is inconcei 
the same person should have used habitually and exclusively one mode of writing s 
one set of manuscripts, and another in another set of manuscripts. It follows, 
that Parts I-III were written by a person different from the three persons who wrote 

Parts IV-VII ; for as will be shown in the sequel (pp 

and xx xiv), on similar 

grounds, the two writers of Parts IV and VI must have been different persons from 
writer of Parts V and VII. 

I 11 this connection, as bearing on the question of the number oi 
ing fact, which, will be fully discussed in Chapter IV, must he noted 

~ a 

cussed in uuapier 

form of the letter y, which originated in the northern area of the 

which is found in Parts 1-1 
make use exclusively of the old three-pronged form of y (Pig. 19), which persistently con 

area . 

tinned to prevail in the 
the scribes of Parts V-VII from the scribe of 


Parts I-III is worth noticing. 

It is 

the fashion of writing the character for the dental th. As may be seen in Table I, in 

Parts I-III that character has an u 


it ion, while in Parts V 

more or less slanting. Though a smal] point in 
marks the germ of a fashion of writing with a slant. 

, it is worth 

because it 

which developed subsequently in 


the Eastern Turkestan settlement of Kucha r, and which is shown in Pig 
(p. xxxiii), and in Pig. 17, L 3, c and cl (p. xxxv). 

61 Unfortunately, owing to the nature of the soft sand - 
, on which they are incised, the angles of the letters are 
much eroded, thus obscuring somewhat their true forms, 
but the flat top is still well marked in several cases ; c.y., 
in §abda 3 1, 6, and srt f \. 7, of the complete pillar inscription 

(F.GL, p. 146-7) and in and fA 1 of the dupli- 
cate inscription {*£.» p* 159). In the better 
script ion, ontho harder slate tablet, the flattop o fS d 
distinct ; e.#., in l. 4 (*&►, p. 163). 



it i os of 

i SrrjtnfM < TIOM 



mow (hat there *:tm*t Ji&te Imen no 
of the Boner Manuscript. la Part** 

• V ' ’'. - 

- ,*v„ 

1 'Z* 1 S’,*'. t o - 3 , ',r * 

. than four persousgongngod |m|1he n 

he similarity of writing is, in all cougpteuora th&i it Is Im p 

production to more 

one person. As to Parts V, V I and Til, it 

’0 siiowii 

from their mode of writing the palatal I, that they cannot have been written by 



t ieal person who wrote Parts I-III. Moreov 


rer, it is 

have been written by two different writers, Thai Part > V and VII are due to tin 

* £ 

writer follows, as in the case of Parts 1*111, from the conspicuous similarity »f the writ! ag. 

- case of Part VI may seem uncertain. There is superficial di srimif&ritv in its gtrlc 

of writing from that in Parts V and VI L but on the other hand, it must he remembered 

-*-’1 * J' . - T', , * -■ tfll -, 1 I . . «• l - 1 3 , r JBj * * ■ V L t } » ”^T , "* 

that Part VI is written calligraphically, while Parts V and \II are written 


extremely cursive and careless fashion. Also, there is a not inconsiderable similarity of 

_ a “ *■ * *JL - l .'* . l" ' u ... n 

writing in the three Parts, which extends even to the use of the same signs of inter 


see p. 

V-YII having in this respect a common system differing 

from that in Parts I-III. 'Moreover, there is the fact that the same name YaTimitra (ie., 

Ya46mitra) occurs both in the calligraphically written Part VI (fol. £a, % 6, ed. pp. 225, 

280) ana the cursively written Part VII (fob 2a } t 3, ed. pp. *237*9). This name must 

be that of the votary, who either wrote the manuscript himself, or got it written for 

himself by a scribe. For, as the Japanese scholar, Dr. K. TT atanabe, explains ( Journal 

Royal Asiatic Society, 1907, 263) it “ was a custom in ancient China and Japan f> 

that “ a votary must recite his name” in the copy of a devotional work which he either 

wrote himself, or caused to be written for himself. On the other hand, there is the very 

on the obverse side of its folios, while 

circumstance that Part VI is 

Part VII bore its folio numbers on the reverse sides (see Chapter II, p. xx), As in the 

case of the two modes of writing the palatal S, it is hardly conceivable that the same 

person should have been in the habit of using two entirely different modes of 

It should, also, be observed that (see Chapter VIII) Parts VI and VII contain two 

different portions of the same tract, and (see Chapter II) greatly differ in their quality 

of birch-bark and state of preservation. The explanation which best accords with all 

these facts seems to be that a monk, called YaSomitra, wrote, or got written, for his own 

use, a copy of the protective charm, a portion of which now survives as Part VII, At a 

subsequent date, when that copy had become 

, he got the damaged portion 


replaced by a new copy, namely, the existing Part VI, on a fresh supply of superior 

bark, which a new arrival from India may have brought with him. Regarding tin 

personality of Yasomitra, it may be surmised that he must have been a Buddhist monk 

of great repute for saintliness and learning. For the fact that the manuscripts were 

found in the relic chamber of the stupa shows that they must have been the property 



X. -1 

* '■ ■ 

of the person in whose honour the stupa was erected ; and to be accorded such an honour 

that person must have been a monk of acknowledged eminence. But whatever the 

exact number of writers may 

that Parts V-YII have s© many peeu 

4 . ' 

liarities in common shows that the writer of Part V must have been a native of the same 

country or locality, in India as the writer of Parts V and VII. On the writer of Part IV, 

see below, p 




of the several Parts of the Bower Manuserip 




■*-- 5 WT 

St -V*R 



On this r omt the 

jjp ■' v > odfr? 
ffwS ■ -l 

c ■ v , • j, , f , 

?■• tU. - '• > * • 


. ■. y 

“‘t* , 

ChAF‘1 kh 


some very inters 


will be ohsi'vu 







forms of the initial vowel < , 

x triangle 

Poking lit Tuliic i, | a 

\ ' 

% -*j 

* L a 

>' 0 is, or juts out, beyond fin 



It II * 

tfi V-Y 1 1 

V * 


irciv t 


d ill itrtuiei? 

j ngtat »id>- of 

n consult^ m mm m w «d'Vi r ;7 Si 18 "■***• ** 

“i. i' ana vii m Hulilor s Indian !’,• ■ ■ 

, . , . , Retearch), it will be found dial the nrniooiiua l 

xv <oq> (graphic records of the southern area of the (iu|)ti P " * 

mued m the northern and southern areas 

%Ct/clopti',Ua of Indo-Ar 

ipta script. Die fa 

snown m 1 is* 12 

runs rousr 



; a souui-o’ 

and 22°. The form of tin 

respect - 

ne, as a Ire; 

H*ly direct ion bet 

♦ f. L ft 

>tween N. Lat, 2:4° 

Fig. 12. 


£ e is 



U i \ X (r 

xxiv, 1. 26), w 

Lai Sl° »> 



*GL No. 38, p 101 , 

f g *4 

area, xho same 

24 5 , F. 

C (J <J 



> ]). 9J 

e xiiB, 1. 

n in 

Forms of the initml 4 in the 
northern a n<l »oteherti riv««. 

ate xxiv A., 1. 2 ; 

8 °f T iW ° arcas; aud from anoth « r inscription (F.GI. 

n m 

same place comes the northern form without 

* k- 


form, in two slight variations, is shown 

a a 



at. 24° 13', F.GI. No. 27 

xvii, 1. 9, and No. 2S, p. 125. Plate xviii, 1. 12). Prom further south. 


Pal lava and Kadamha forms, shown in (c) and 


Kushana form, shown in (h). 

; and from further north comes the 

In the second place, tin 

>re is t he 

H H 1 1 . 1 IH fence in t-lio form of the vowels u 

and u 9 in the akshara, or syllables, ru and ni } which are shown 

y ev 

ses ot Table II. In Par 
r, but in Parts Y-YII 

mg a 


— — — — ~w •me ftt- -m. -mmr «■ a v- » *jP p f ^_ar - ■ . %.jF %_ s r li X- 4 >1 |_ s li V = \ JL 4> # S. 4 ■» | 

. The long vowel n is indicated in Parts I- III, by 

^ . * '■ ■■ ■ • ’ * v 

hut in Part YI, by adding a semicircle, to its own particular 
symbol for ru respectively. For Parts V and VII, unfortunately, no examples are avail- 

able; but their agreement, in this respect, with Part VI may be presumed. On refer 

ring again to the 

III and VII in Bulilcr’s Indian Palceogr 


in Parts V-VII 

mograpnif, it \\ 

to the southern, but 

Parts I-III to 

forms, the southern and northern, are shown 

Fig. 13 


in Fig. 13. W ell w 





(a) from the same 







. 21° 31 

. N 

Plate xx iv, 1. 3); also 


form (6), from an inscr 







. 20° 31' ; F.GI. No. 11, p. 61, 

Forms of rut and ru in lb northern and south cm areas. 

viii, 1. 29, as well as (c) from 


i user 


58'; F.GI. No. 81, p. 

, Plate xiv, h 12). 



southern character of these three inscriptions^ is 


proved by the fact that they all exhibit the distinctly southern form of m (Fig. ^b ) . ■ 

Maliy& inscription (Plate xxiv, 11. 12, 16) shows the southern forms {e) and (f) of ru. 
On the other hand, we have, well within the northern area, the northern form (#) of ru 

in inscriptions at K; 

. 26° 10', F.GI. No. 15, p. 67, Plate ix A, & 8, 1-), f 

W):« X ' 

■ ■?- 

• „ . 

7,1 . 


\ a 1 


<> r . w 


L ">? * : 


'?-*■? f* 


V 7 

‘r- •;.- 

•JlU 1 ' "i ■• 

' ■■". r 

,S . * 

r V> J Cl ' 

J’V >"• 

■ : . nss* --; 

J V7 


r« H. t \> * 4 


¥5. ■ 

V - • 

Al'TISH j j } 

■ >r:v ;V 

- }* i r •••".'} 

rlS'l _ 


•^v V-'-^ 

.. t •:•- . ». ft-- 

:■#■.' ■ V ■ ' ; 

at Uh(W. W la, J.« No. HI, p. 71 , l'l„l„ i* 11 , j, « M ,o r, 


.• §£ - . I ;• .-v , 

. vvfr.riA. 

, - • 
. A-. 

I'- ‘ 

- > t; A. 

um (Lat. 25° O') , (l) at Mandasdr (Lat. 2# O'), and (*») at Mat (tat «J 

Ai Afl RA />0 nnN i a/i a tu .1 * -1 * v * 

* *, 

>0, 33 

F.GI. No. 

form ( 

3, 03, pp. 227, 147, 203, Plates xxxi, 1. 1,, I. 8, xxxixA, 1. ;j 
n) of rd appears in an inscription at Udayagiri (Lat. - >J 

W 32', 


p. 2oa, Plato xxxviii, t 7), and with a slight; difference (o) at BAdhg 
(Lat. 24 41, F.GI., No. 71, p. 277, Plate xli, 1. 13). Both these i nscript iong arc on the 

border line; but on that line also (lie southern forms of rn and rd areHH 

I?£w J- r 

with the northern. Thus at Khdli (Lat. 24° 23') both forms of ru occur : 

j - > — — . _ . ' / 


f ! 

& .. c.v •: ?; 


W ( F -^I- No. 22, p. 103, Plate xiii, 11. 5, 11, and No. 25, p. 114, Plate xvB, 11. 7, i 3) 
and the northern (t) (F.GI. No. 27, Plate xviii, 11. 6, 10 ; No. 28, Plate xviii, 1. 6 No’. 



i' ji;' 

P J; 

29, Plate xixA, 1. 13, and No. 31, Plate xx, 1, 6) ; and what is particularly to be noted, 

the southern form occurs here in conjunction with the northern form of m (Pig. 9 c). 
Similarly both forms of rd are seen at Mandasdr (Lat. 24° 3 ), the southern (g) (F. GI. 

No. 18, p. 82, Plate xi. 11, 10, 15) and the northern (n) (F.GI. No. 35, p. 153, Plate 

xxxii, 1. 11). Moreover, there is a peculiar form rd (h) and (p) which substitute two 

parallel strokes for the southern semi-circle, and this form appears to be common to 

both areas; for it is seen in the south at Junagadh (Lat. 21° 31'; F.GI. No. 14, p. 59, 

Plate viii, L 10), as well as in the north at Bi sad (Lat. 27° 33' ; F.GI. No. 10, p. 44, 

Plate v, I 11) . 

In the third pi ace, there is the striking difference in the use of the two forms of the 

letter y , the old and the modern. In Parts I- III, as already observed, and as will be ex 

plained in detail in Chapter IV, the modern form of y is used optionally with its older 

three-pronged form ; while in Parts V-VII that three-pronged form is used exclusively. 

The modern form of y originated in the north, and its use never spread into the 

.south. 62 • • 

The obvious conclusion suggested by the foregoing evidence is that the persons who 

wrote Parts V - V II were natives of some place lying within the southern area. I n the 

case of Part VI, at all events, this conclusion is confirmed by the other significant fact 

that the folios of Parts VI are numbered on their obverse sides (see Chapter II, p. xx). 
For, as Bubler has pointed out in the Vienna Oriental Journal, VoL VII, p. 261, the 

practice of numbering the folios on their obverse side is a peculiarity of Southern India, 

W e have a good example of this practice, of a very early date, in the copper-plates of the 

Pallava King Sivaskanda Varman, and the K6ndamudi Plates of Jaya Varman, a con- 

temporary of the Andhra Kings Gautamiputra and VhSishthiputra, who reigned about 

113—137 ^ 

pp. 4 — 6, Plates I-V, Vol. V, p, 86, and VoL VI, p. 315. At the same time, the place 
whence the writers of Parts V-VII came must have been somewhere near the border 
line of the two areas. This is indicated by the circumstance that the southern forms of 

These copper plates may be seen in the EpigrapMa Indica , Vol I, 

6, Plates I-V, Vol. V, p. 86, and Vol. VI, p. 315. 

•“ 4r i • 

e, ru and rd are employed in conjunction with the northern form of m, exactly as in the 

inscriptions, above mentioned, at Eran and Khdh, both of which places lie on the border 

line. Whilfi t.Tho wvU-.pvh nf Pfivte V.VT1 lui v T , , _ I* . , 

e the writers of Parts Y-VII appear to have come from some place near the 

southern limit of the northern area, the person who wrote Parts I-TTT mmt Wp come 
from •omchere n«r it. north.™ Ihnit, i. to «a y , from Kaohmir or Mvinl 

62 There is a farther point of difference between Parte 
MIL 3 and Parte V-Y II. 

Tt n, • *i* i I V< ?m G / **, poinU however, ia not decisive of locality, and 

It ooneerus the elmpo of the Wt»l | will bo discussed in the sequel, p. mr , 

4 e-v. I 


rs ; ' 

1 .. u 

- iitv ' v ! 

is iui 

where ii originated duvet h from the ( 


• <>«' »hvuiw»mv ill Vm H (M, '27. t, I, n> of the If. .tii» 6*~u f mm tif 

'<• A (Table !, No, 3 in Tmimrsc 21. The Su.ulA script m peculiar to Kashmir 

script in tins course of the seventh 

,tml " here it is still current , almost Unchanged, to the j>iv*©nl d The S&nidA forta* of 

si' letters " lueh <'uter into the precent enquiry are shown in the lower line of Fig. 
The upper line shews the correspond in» 

letters m the script of the I .[urinal Miumseript. 
which was written in the first half of the sixth 

Fig- 14 

l V 








P $ n o 


letter* of the Hi i a*i and 4?at*d& script*. 

(Jared of a O.ronietutio, Yol. I, Part 
III, p- 64). Its script, therefore, was 
immediate predecessor oi the §Arada script. 

appearance of the S&radfc form of dlHPiiiBHimPHiHIHRiH 
(Fig. 11, 1. 2 b) in Part II is quite exceptional. it occurs only once. Its use would 
seem to have grown gradually more frequent) till it finally became distinctive of the 

it. On the other hand, that script selected for itself (Fig. 14, 1. 2y), from the 
two co-existent forms of the palatal i, the flat-topped variety, which is used in Parte 


The forms which the Gupta script developed on its transference to Central Asia are 

shown in Fig. 15. That figure shows tlve same 





Fig. IS. 

43 W f, m, <* 

c i < i 1 

t * « r ^5 £ * 

a % c d t f 9 
The upright and slanting scripts of Kncbir. 

series of letters (as in Fig. 14) in the forms 1 
which they assumed in manuscripts written in 
the Buddhist settlement at Kucliar. They arc o ^ 
extracted from Parts II ajul IX of the Weber 
Manuscripts, which are shown in Plate I, Fig. mHHHH 
2, and Plate III, Figs. 3-5, in my Report on the Weber Manuscripts in the Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LXII, Part I (1803), pp. 1-39. It will be seen 
from Fig. 15 that there are two distinct varieties of the Kuchari script, the second 
variety (lower line) showing an appreciable slant which is absent from the first 
variety. 64 The latter variety, it will bo noticed, resembles much more closely the up- 
right ductus of the Gupta script as it was current in northern India, and as 

the Bower Manuscript. The latter Manuscript, as has been explained in Chapter II, 
is written mainly (i.e., all except Part YI) on inferior and damaged birch-bark, which 
circumstance suggests its having been written by Indian emigrants on remnants of 
the store of birch-bark which they had brought with them from India. 65 On the 
other hand, the Weber Manuscripts are written on paper, which was the ordinary writ- 
ing material of Eastern Turkestan. The two varieties of the Kuchari script, shown in 
these manuscripts, were current contemporaneously ; for they were all dug out from the 
Qutluq Urda stupa in the vicinity of Kuchar (see Chapter I). How the divergence of the 
two varieties arose is not known. What the difference of the writing material, however t 
suggests is that the manuscripts on birch-bark, such as the Bower Manuscript were 

** These letters are extracted from a birch-bark manu- 
script in Sarada characters which was presented to me by 
Dr. Stein in December 3898. 

64 The two varieties are shown also in Fig. 17, where 
the difference of the upright (c) aud slanting (d) forme of n 
and th (in U. I, 2, 3, respectively) is very clearly marked. 

w This conclusion is suggested also by the circumstance 
mentioned earlier (p. xxix) that the letter tk is written 
in Parts Y-VIl with an approach to the slant which 
distinguishes one of the two varieties of the fully developed 
Kuchari script. 

H’ . 



A,, ii & Hi 

written at an earlier date than the manusmpi.s on pafnr* The former nrotmhl 

„ n« .i-i . *1 *L i t * i- . ,nn , 1 u,, y wer» 

written by immediate immigrants I'rom India, who still pofltiowed l^xia itore of'l f 

k.y»i- . : x i * !j i * , .. . * ,J **ctu 

bark, their native writing material, while the latter were written by their dmenda t* 
nl% hv tmtivo if n Ai>*ini w ho naturally made use of the naner of ^ 1 


*y- In this connection a curious point may bo noticed. 

The upright Variety 

(upper line in Pig, 15) conserves the Southern Indian fashion of writing the syllable r 

and (c andy), the jutting $ (a), and (though not quite distinctly) the flat-topp**! 





On tin 

other hand, the slanting variety (lower line of Tig. 15) conscrfBV the northern fashion of 

■mm. u. - ' * _ ’ ■ M J* VI . 

a\ riting ru and ru (<? and/), and the round-topped $ (g) of Parts I- 1 II, Avith which 

T _ . _ .. * i l i . _ 

however, it combines the southern jutting e (a). This combination, in the slanting 

variety, of different Indian fashions of writing seems to suggest that that variety origin- 

a ted 


For if should be noticed 

that both the Sarada, script, Avhich originated from the Quota script, and the Horiuzi 


e upright variety of the Kuchari script in consenting the southern Gupta fashion of 

av riting e, ru and ru, and s. m The considerable modification in the terms of some letters 



production of the Bower Manuscript. As the date of the latter is probably to be referred 

~ — ~ f7 t Jy l iAV VIWIAJ V'-L l UV 

scripts may be placed within the sixth century, or possi) >ly a little earlier. 


It has been stated {ante, p. xxix) that Part IV must have been written by a person 

w x. 

different from the two writers of Parts V-YII, as well as from the writer of Parts I-Il 1 


m w 

s, as against the use oi the round-topped 4 in Parts I- 1 1 1. from the former he differ 


— v .mt m-m v -m, V V-»- » ^ m V* Va 

by tbe use of the plain e, as well as the northern ru and ru, as against the jutting e and 

1 T I 1 1 T M Ik J T "F" T* TT T v. _ 

the southern ru and ru of Parts Y-YII. (further from both, the writer of Parts [-111 

as well as the writers of Parts V-VII, the scribe of Pari IY differs in the following 

- _ - -- - _ ^ ^ 

striking points. In the first place, he writes the initial vowel ri in a way quite peculiar 

to himself. 

different! \ 

In Paris Y-YII that vowel does not happen to occur at all. It is altogether a character 

of very rare occurrence. From the epigraphic records of India, as may he seen bv a 

, i ■» mil* IV .. 1 1 , -r ». _ * * 

, 7 ***■*••’ >'V OV >■ II 1/ I Mr 

reference to the Tables in Biihlci s Indian jP alueog rag h y , it nppeurs to be altogether 

absent. In the Hoiiuzi Manuscript (first half of the sixth century) it resembles rather 

^ I _ - I TT' i f A -m JL 

the character for the vowel In the SArada script, also, it has a very simple form, 
though quite different from that in Part IV. The full data for an eifeetiVe comparison, 
therefore, are not available. All that can be said is that the form of the initial vowel 

ri, which is seen in Fart IV, stands quite by itself. 

In the second place, in Part IV the initial rowel i is written qoito differently from 

Parts I-III on the one sid<t and from Parts V-VII on the other. The character for the 

66 The Hne of linguistic descent, on the present evidence, 1 sradnittlv tU Allf .i i'C Oi!: . > . > 

appears to be at follows : The south era Gupta travels in tliJ i! ;, l *'? (fih mto th, 

fourth century northwards, ti, rough Kashmir and Udy&„. ui u f, IS t H • “ 

toKuchaxm Eastern lurkcstau. In Kashmir it develops the Knchari script (6tl. cent.). 


v'a aim m III] 

f N I H'HM ( riolt* 

>»> i i n » Ttr > , — umihlKd av Hi! a 

ml but in I art IV tf.o arrangement of the dote is exactly reversed ■ the auk-ukr 

a< “ has m M, f ri " r ^ sUion - Th " ••vid.ntial value -of tins' difference^ however, * 
not quite nsMiml. I n the Gupta script, as M*a m the epigrapbic ripcords 
the' initial i i> made in a greet variety of forms. 

forms (n-d) are peculiar to the southern area of 

m i '• « _i V '• * - I , , ( u ■ I ' •• *•"* , ,* * . _ « ' "* ' ~ • 

tat script. The two forms (<? and /) and the 

'hown in Pig. 1G. The four 

Frg. (6 



• # 


four forms (g-k) prevail mainly in the eastern 
and western portions respectively of the northern 
area. Finally the form (l) has no definite habitat : 
it is found in the inscriptions at Nirmand in the V 


* I 









v y 


h l k 

Forms of the initial vowel i. 


* * 



Fig. 17. 












(Lat. 81 ° 25', Long. 77° 38'), in « 

Pahladpur in the north-east (Lat. 25° 26', Lon». 

:r 3V), and at Junagadh in the south-west (Lat. 21° 31', Long. 70° 
in the JNirmand inscription it occurs side by side with the proper western form 
(i) ; and in the Pahladpur record it alternates with the form (g). Considering that 
the record at Nirmand comprises only sixteen lines, and that at Pahladpur even only 
a single line, the suspicion obtrudes itself that the reversal of the position of the apicular 
dot in the form (/) may be a mere error of writing. Whether or not its occurrence in Part 
1 V of the Bower Manuscript is due to a scribal error, it is not possible to say with 
certainty, seeing that the initial (i) occurs only once in that Part ; but the possibility of 
its being due to a mere error cannot be disregarded, and it is this possibility which 
detracts from its evidential value. Por the purpose of fur- 
tlier comparison sherc are added in Pig. 17 the forms ot 
initial i in the Horiuzi (a) and Sarada (b) scripts, as 
well as in the Kuohari script of the upright (<?) and 
slanting i d) varieties. In order to bring out more clearly 
the marked distinction between the two varieties (<?) and 
(d) of the Jvuehari script, the for ms of n and th are 

added in second and third lines. 

In the third place, the general appearance of the writing in Part IV conveys 
the su»"estion that it was done with a brush rather than a stylus or reed-pen. Thus the 

' ,.***\f s ■ v ttc v “► ■ ■* 1 ■ . 

curious fiourish, or jerk, at the bottom of the right limb of the letters g and t, and of both 
limbs of S (see Table I)-, suggests the brush. The apparently similar curves, to be seen in 
t he letters g, t, n, s in Parts V-VII, are obviously due to a different cause, viz., to the tend- 
ency towards continuity in cursive writing. 6 * The stylus, or reed-pen was the usual instru- 
ment of the Indian scribe, and with it undoubtedly Parts I-III and V-VII are written. 








letters of the Horiuzi, Sarada, and 

Kuohari scripts. 

The brush was peculiar to the Chinese scribe, and hence would naturally he the instru- 
ment used in the Chinese province of Eastern Turkestan. And though an 

immigrant into Jvuchar might conceivably abandon his accustomed lnstv 

Axi instructive example of an exactly similarly written i Kiuu, in theuord < v <f, iu j! 

cursive 5 may he seen iu the Tdram&na stone inscription at I 1. 12. 

* i-1 4 Hill I U U J. I U i* , 

take to that of his adopted country, it i«-on the assumption that Part, TV 
written with a hviwh —practically Certain that it must, hav.« beei 

[0«4tr8 B in 

'stan, or perhaps by a 

g-o’i of Quin T lira . 


W ^ r<%i i 

., . 

fa t 

Irrespective of tie details which distinguish the throe styles of wi ll it 

■i V -V FT ^ ^ J ** i -rir . € 

rts V-YII and Part IV respectively, it" ^imp^i Uo 

pronounoe difference m the general appearance of the writing in those tin , MM . r >y U " 

e ^ ower Manuscript. This circumstance leads to a further observation. l0 " H 01 

• lr < • IV| | j s^e of the obverse of the « on .fig ^ m^TSSSM ? 

remark, the exact, r»n.,w. .• _x , . . . , - lUhCn M t 

*3^ SSSS* pu ^ p0rt . ot rticl ** “ !*«•«<> ■** ioWMgiMo." But va 


by ^p 6 Same hand tbat WTOte PartS V an ^ VIL in addition to tin, ^5 

appeal auce of samftnAco * ^ . .. « ' general 

oTthTl^ T3& 'Sl^ : in tUe remark th0Se P rcvi0usl y OXpS 

„ * ke ^ ant ^ which are peculiar to the writer of Parts V and VH 

reverse ot that. 0,^0 i„„p ,1 “• 

nlix-P • 6 ° 1 M ^ ere * s inscribed the commencement of Part IV. 

On tli 


nWren -P +i ,, . , , **' wmiuemieuieui OL rarii IV. ()., n,„ 

£ B «r m* — ’"**» ^ 

flip fnnnfk n x-x A <4 pi -t i . ' ^ ^ ) ’ tuclu iS ot t *1, written he I worn 

clearly in the interlinear remark, too, i 8 

pImtIv in a. i, j . ' — -» xms iiLwrnuear remark, too is 

tZ 7 “of tw 1“ ™ i N * the peculiar 

teftw IS wi J 1 . be seea by !! ferenoe .. t0 Tabk ‘ ^2 

left-hand Sttmlro * 1 ^ ruiuie nce 10 i.awe I, the 

IV it curls to the riht. - mark — " ^ ^ ICft “ ^ ^ V and VI1 ’ whil ° in 

The conclusion that may be drawn from the existence of the 

i ci 1 ttfIi t ii. . * i -■ , A _ 

two remarks in the positions in which they occur is that after Parts fell had )Z wrt ton 

they mssefl into «ia Unri a ~c r* ts , ^ „ . U,JIUI Ulll ' tei1 

they passrd into t he hands of the writer' Pari IV 5ES® 

rare of the last l#»f «p u„-x m an. , „ . ® ^ *S> °nin<, Diank 

page of the last leafof Part III. Afterwards Parts I-IV passed into °thc hands “f 

tile writer of Pfipfc V irrT — 1 . . 1 <ulus 01 

LmLd StJ «» <N» Z of 

Part III, and his brief complementary remark on the third leaf of Part IV 

W?l Q lin *rrrli v\n+ « 11 il , ^ i t -w - 

was also he who put aU the Parts together, and enclosed then, as a TO lleetivc w-lil 
between a mir of wooden hoflivls m n „ ^uve manuscu|.i 

between a pair of wooden hoards. It mav he siitrvnofnri ,r , ,, _ ^ 

!&? f^^rrT - «•» —Ho order Lj£ £ 

writer of Parts I-III. The interlinear remark In Part IV onlv adds n ,, \ , . , 

been inadvertently omitted by the original writer. * P ira&e which had 

Fill ■ l f® t m /i * 

The results of the foregoing enquiry may he summed up as follows 

owtr, T TTT oaarl Best, V lffT ,. . _ 1 ^ lOllOWS. 

of Pavta T-TFI •Hid P-i rta V VTT ^ ‘ «““«uui U|J as I0110WS, The writCl'S 

m£ZL M “ „ w .^1“ ^ £*#!.■ <* »*K> W Migrated to Kueha, 

They, no doubt, ayere Bnddhis, monks, and these, « is well 

habit of travelling*, or misrati no* . + nr . ULU iU U1L 

i i *j j* ± ii * . ? ivilu w iij were oaten m 

SI 1™ imZ *2£Si " ^ »*?**■ ftrcigu Parts. 

• -j a ,i . : , , "* ~; J . P inuo iyorei2*n Parts Tn 

judge from their style of writing, the scribe of Parts fen orimnnlW r. 

the northern, and the two scribes of Parte v.vt ■ r... .. o y came iiom 

the northern, and the two scribes of Parts V- VII from +ho «, 011 o ma X came from 

area of the Indian Onnto *? P«* •» «» <M 

area of the Indian Gupta script. But the fact IW ,i„„ , . . pan 01 »« “ onh «™ 

show. that, the aoL™ ‘ h ^.^ as their writing 

.•it ±1 j. n , . ^ u&t3 tnrcn-Darlc as their wr l \n°' 

material shows that the country, from which more immediate +i„ , i ,° 

Kucliar, must have been Kashmir or Udyhna • and tlm r, rp p ,f ^ migrated to 
they use suggests that the, wrote th.i. SsMS? ^ of birot-Wi which 

they use suggests that they wrote their respective parts of tho Tin 

tlieir settlement in Kuchar, when their store of hiroli-7 i- i i Manuscripts after 

17 TT Tnm/"ilv nl^lrr ttrCiWA nrwI-^/vvi n S 010 0 >™li-bark had run short. Parts V and 

, , , ... _ uaa 

VII probably were written about the same time as Parts I-III 

Ai rAll /kATVI mi . aj-x. 

were never completed. They !f T TT? 

writer of Part XT; who would seen to irayo been . ’ !?S th ° ‘“ >n ‘ ls ll * * 

or perhaps of China. Prom him P-h- r nr . natlve of Eastern Turkestan, 

arts I IV passed into the hands of the writer of Parts 

U \ ■, 

r ‘; * e&’ : * 

’- f . '.---* ■- 7 r': -• ' 

r. *' ’•• ' • ,'i , , ■ 1 

‘ ; V- - £ ' ' ’ 

• - < 7 ■ ■ 

• ’i> ;s ' ft ■:* v • 

t s ‘ ij* 

"Jt • 


! Wt£ c 'V r 

■j 1 t . 

* . V 


F and VII, who added the two remarks 
ibsequent date by a fourth scribe on s 

xxxv n 

kart VI was written at a 

time, by Part VII 

•P T A " i» ji X X «7 JJXUjJO)iV;U UUtU'UdilV lUrXVuOj 

10 India, tor the purpose of repairing the damage suffered, in the mean 


fourth scribe himself who may have been a later immi<* 
been lesidmg m a monastery near Kuchar. But the ultimate 
of manuscripts, whose name appears to have been YaSomitra, m 

have been brought from 


position in that : 
chamber of the 

have been built in his 



collective manuscript was contained in the 
the Minardi of Q,um Tura, which would app< 

* NTlMHlla [ M Hi, 

t.’UA l'TI-4 It V TUB DA I I OK Til 14 WKITIN<; M 



S f) 


• - • 1 

Xono <>i the so vo » Parts of the Bower Mamwcripi is dated. NeverUieh-s* it i* dm, 

aible from its peUreograpkio conditions" to dotormim- the dale of the manuscript within 

very narrow limits. In doing ho two preliminary points must be taken 


ration , 

lu the first place, the Bower Marutst 

©stan, is essentially a pr 
The use of that hark, as a 

to north-western 

script, though recovered from fiastern Turk- 
ol north-western India. It is written oti lurch- btirk. 




at all. 1 

► according to all available evidence, 

%r . . * , a *'* W n Eas tem Turkestan, whence the Bower 

Manuscript has come, the birch which yields the writing bark does not appear to grow 

a very few exceptions, all the manuscript books, discovered in Eastern 

Tutkestan in the course of many recent explorations of its ancient ruined sites, are 

written on various kinds of paper. 75 Those few birch-bark manuscript books, which arc 

known to have been discovered in that country, are the Bower Manuscript, the Dutreuil 

de Bhins Manuscript, a manuscript found by Mr. Bartus, a memW of Professor 

Griinwedel s expedition, and a manuscript found by Dr. Stein. The Dutreuil de Rhin- 

Manuscript was said to come from the sacred cave on the G6srioga hill near Khotan ; 

but the story of the native finders has been fully exposed by Dr. Stein, who examined 

the cave in the course of his first expedition in 1900-1 Nothing is really known of 

the find-place of that manuscript. The Bartus Manuscript was found in the course 

of Professor GrunwedeFs expedition in 1902-3, in one of the rock-cut caves, close to 

the Mmg-o'i of Qizil to the west of Kuchar, a little higher up the river Muz ait then 
the Ming-o'i of Qum Tura (see the Sketch Map). 77 The Stein Manuscript is a re* 
cen t discovery. It was excavated by Dr. Stein, in the course of liis second 

1906-8 in Khadalik, a site north-east of Domoko, 78 which was abandoned probably 
in the second half of the eighth century A.D. As to the Bower Manuscript, there is no 
sufficient reason to doubt the story of its having been found in one of the rained stdpas 
of Qum Tura, near Kuchar (see Chapter I, pp. xi ff). All these bircli-bark manuscripts 
must have been written by Buddhist pilgrims, or immigrants, from north-western India. 

Most of them probably were written by them in their original home, in Kashmir or 

73 An essay on the date ot the Bower Manuscript wjs 
published by me in the Journal, As. Soc, Beng,, Vol. LX 
(1891), Part X, It was reprinted, with additions, in the 
Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXI, pp. 29 ff. The date assigned 
to the Bower Manuscript in that essay was the middle of the 
fifth century A I). In the meantime, much new information 
has become available, necessitating a fresh consideration of 
the whole problem. The result is that there now appear 
good reasons for ante-dating the manuscript by about three* 
quarters of a century. 

71 See my paper on u Palm-leaf, Paper, and Birch- 
bark ” in the Journal, As. Soc. Beng., Vol. LXIX (1900), 
Part I, pp. 32 £f. 

7 ” Tliis remark refers to manuscript oooks only. Letters 
and documents, official or private, have been found written 
also on wood, leather, silk, and other material, but birch-bark 
has never been fount! in use for such non -literary purposes ; 
nor, I may add, palm-leaf. 

/6 See his Ancient Khotan , Vol. I, pp, 185 ff. 

This manuscript, according to Dr, A. von Le Coq’s 
information, formed part of a library, the manuscripts of 
were found in crusted in a mass of dry mud. Some of 

its folios hare been cleaned, and show writing in Gupta char- 
acters, closely resembling those of the Bower Manuscript. 
In another part ot the Qizil Ming~di t in a cave temple 
manuscripts were fount, more or less fragmentary, which 
were written on palm-leaves. This circumstance is of parti- 
cular interest, because manuscripts written on palm-leaf (in 
this case of the Cvrypha umhracuUfera (-ee my ** Epigra- 
ph ical Note od Palm-leaf, Paper, and Birch-bark, in the 
Journal, Aa. Soc. Beng,, Vol LXIX, Part I, pp, 93 ff) are 
of distinctly Indian provenance and thus corroborate the 
equally distinct Indian character of the birch-bark manu- 
scripts, Minute fragments of a palm-leaf manuscript, which 
apparently proceeded from the Qatiuq TTrd& Stupa (see 
Chapter I) are described by me in the same Journal, Vol. 
LXVI (1897), Part I, pp. 213 ff. The manuscript, which 
is shown in Pigs. 6 and 7 of Chapter II, was found in the 
same cave temple of the Qizil Ming-di t bat is written on 

78 On this site, see Dr. Stein’s Ancient Khotan, Vol. I, 
pp. 454, 458 ff*, 468 ; also his preliminary report on his 
second tour, 1906-1908, in the Geographical Journal for 
July and September 1909 (Reprint, p 17). 




u\[ Into their n o w «rii ! omenta* Tin* Bower Mar 

•V. . f :' 

* i)il 1 he f. 

’ *** ff*, XX 

hand, as has feton shown in Chapter II <> ' <h ..... AJt 

in *U probability was written hy m their new settlement, on bb-eM> flrk 
with thorn from their original home. But that, though written probably in » 
Turkestan, their writers certainly wore natives of north-western India, is p*^ , r 

_ — - i * ^ * .1* aj*. k. m X 1 X 1 1 yti 1 /a X X* m a m X w j.v ekbifeB it _ 


occurrence in Parts I-III of a particular form of the letter y, lnweaft 

<*r ( .f 

form/* w 

sii, fasj w 
which, as proved by the V 

ill be shown in the sequel, originated m 

ill us 

n % 

t» ** 


3r wcuait paper manu** 

discovered in Eastern Turkestan, was never in use in the latter country. 78 

In the second place, the Bower Manuscript, as shown in Chapter HI, p. xxx, i*the 

work of four distinct scribes, who wrote Parts I-III, Part IY, Parts V and VJI, ^ 
Part. YT respectively. The scribe who wi'ote the second portion (Part IV) commenced fck 

^ on the reverse page of the last leaf of the first portion (Paris I-III), while the scr'd^ 

who wrote the third portion (Parts V and VII) inscribed a remark on either of the two ' 



It is obvious that the production of Part IV 
of Parts I-III ; and it is equally obvious 

that to the writer of Parts V and VII, both Part IV and Parts I-III were accessible. 
As to the fourth portion (Part VI), it is written for the benefit of the same person 
(YaSdmitra) as the beneficiary of Part VII. From the co-ordination of these facts it follows 
that the production of these four portions of the Bower Manuscript must be compassed by 
space of about one generation. Now, as may be seen from Table II, Traverses 

13-15, and as will be explained in the sequel, the writer of Parts I-III 

new form* 5 of the letter y, while the writers of Part 

* t H 

though sparingly 
IV- VI I employ the “ old form 

It follows hence that the production of 


the Bower Manuscript must be referred to the very point of time when the “ new form" 

_ _ _ . t ^ m. * Jm m -ft 4. r * A 




i some scribes, while it was still avoided by others. 

The salient point, then, of the enquiry is to determine the epoch of the introduction 

_ m * m * 1 

of the u now form 




, w 

vriters of the Bower Manuscript must have come. The determination of that point 

ion of the Bower Manuscript within very narrow 

limits, practically within the space of about one generation.^^^^^ 

Fig. 19 illustrates the gradual development of the character for y. Its 

s ovig* 

* ILC 

a period, was a per 

* CiO 

, or 



on a 

of a circle 

Fig. 19. 


leriod, the right side began to he straightened and angu- 
a rized, ■: while | the ^ 




elf ell 

e i 

which might turn either to the right, as shown in 
ior to the ldEas 

oxi o n ^ 4* 

/ 9 * ‘ 





in epigrapmo 

^ The forms of which, in two 
peenUsr to Eastern Turkeitan, are 

Development uf t he letter >/■ 


varieties of script, were 

shown in Pig. 16 , and 

icords; 81 the latter is pi 



explained in Chapter 111, p. xxxiii, 

^The latter form may be seen in the Radii* and Matbia 

inscriptions, JSp. lnd. s Vol. IT, P- 245 . y ig 

81 Kx.irnples of the use of the sinistrorse 
in the P»ridpur land-grants, Ind. Ant., Vol. 

p. 193, Plate* I-III. 

h fe. «■ 

••? u r? s • f vi$&* 

****** V 1 

* *• 


. r***p " • 

•rr- ,< -■' 

i ' TL , 


vc •■ 

'/i,.. ' •' '• / . '• . 

\? <v -- ' ■ ." 

. > v -i . • • ■ V I - 

— 1 > 1 r ■* 

■■??■:-. -Y% 



^rtpis ( seo ilili- lb 

rn. : < • ,: ■ •=-;. . ^ . ... -•-■■■. , .. ->: - : 

tNTROntH if low. 

■:.■'•■ L ‘. v •.* ** j : ••:- -•* > - • i\ .. .-. 

At I till time it 

lmM> line might be straight, m in {> 

"“**** ^ *' tin 



-rf - 


V .x,f 


• . ' - ■' V , ■ •' . ; 

r/ ; -v,' ■ • •'. • 

■ -■ - ' • * 

■ - ;> . •- ■ v 


Mgukriy, a* i» 

’’t 1 >•#-• 

. .:v 

‘ -i > 



T writ*? t i>4 v T | 

order to w rm 

-<r '* »'fl 

• fe . ■ ’• I t.' , V" ^ 

' 4' ^ ' 'V 


t.V ’v : •' - . l 1 

^ s _ .y* ' * »- • r *> - t > > i • “ -• . - * , • T • 

w«» tlu- lop of the mwlittl lino dowmvimls, and toward* the h* 
t , ° Ur i 1, ‘' 1 I,0rtion " f » h « ‘•h^^dor ; thoollu-r, from the i»M» of the medial line toward. 

tk* «*hl, tn order to writ,, im ft, Wl |ar porlm*. *» ‘ “ 

* of th« <eurl with I lie l»aw» line, so as to form a loop, 

ft- . ;V‘7 i 

Lx ’-- 1 ;- J v " *r ;.o - V .A ■ 

9 - <** t y :• .- r *y 

. 4 

U i 

About the same time the hah it mmm 


• 4,, - V . <lu ’ ,H “ Ml ol •' uuct,on wft * rawed to the right, *o a* to coincide with th» 
PM of junction of the left a „d right portions of the character, as shows 



.. -’V;- 


r. 1 > 

reached, the 

us stage, a merely transitional stage, as wo shall see prm.mih ~ t ~~* r 
aiaracter would im written with a single inovemenf of the hand. * 3mx 



V: £ 

-' r ;:r 1 k'i ^-■ 


mg With the lop of the medial 


, ... straight line, the hand moved down to the hast* line, then 

upward and leftward, round the loop, hack (<■ the point of junction, aad finely oawwri 

B soon began to he observed that the letter cooM % 
wntten wth greater speed, and with more economy of effort, if the downward 

to the angle on the right. But 




o the hand was carried at once to the loop on the left without touching th 



1 ■*.* H:. ^ 

%■ S • ^ ' 
^ ■ >> ' : ; r" 

- . •. v k% - 

1 |3 - * 

■ change produced what is practically the modern form, as saown m 
(i) and (k). Urns, there were now three forms : the old, the transitional, and the modern. 
Old form pe^istf l in the Gupta script of the southern av 


arose m 

SE ' 4 

area about the middle of the fourth century A.D., and disappeared 
end of the sixth century. The modern form arose practically at the same time 
a* the transitional form; but it gradually extruded the Latter; and it persists to the 

, ’ ; 

present day in the sli 

perpendicular below the base line. 

modified Nagari form of the letter which only projects the 

3i* u forms, or, to use an inclusive and more convenient 
term, the “ new form ,s of y was, so to speak, invented in the western portion of the 
northern area. Thence it gradually spread over the eastern portion. This may be seen 
clearly from the epigraphic records of the Gupta period. 

• i * ■ 



It first appears iu the year 872 A.D. 

inscription of Vishnu vaixihana at 


/ 1 


Fig. 20. 

| 9i 



b « d 

F it*k appeaniBcv of il» mm 

*{ U1 

m ft - 





3 *| 

in heyo («), (F.GI., 

232, Plate xxxviC, 1. 4), and about 400 

the rock inscription at TusSm (Long. 76° O'), in yoga (i) , (F.GI Xo, &t, 
xe, 1. 3). T lie boundary of the two areas, as previously stated Chap. Ill, 
is E. Long. 81°. In the eastern area the new form makes its first appearamx 
iu the stone inscription of iSvaravarman at Jaunpur (Long, 82° 43 ), in amardi 
F,GL* Ko. 51, p. 228, Plate xxxiiA, L 2). 

p. xxv 


and its 
The fir 

K C> 


if there was any, is lost ; but it belongs to the middle of tlie sixth century. 


in which 


new form is found, is that of Afah^aaman» 
JBodhgaya (Long. 85° 2'). Here both i 



\ 4 


e.g., the former {<!) in yukta, the latte 

71, p 

Plate xliA, 1. 

.A ■ 

j v ** i 

, r‘ 1 < T 

him -, vwy ■ - 

in yem x (F.GI 


JPT 4 > 

J 1 i 'i 

\ r 


i, • ■ 


single y, the new form appears to have come into use about the 

?v ‘A ■ . 


century, but for the subsenpt y, as the second part of a eempoun 

in use about three cent m i es earlier, from the beginning of the lnflb-8eytfek 

S - :■ 

•y. . y ^ 



r v > 

p §• , V, 

T /s J Y-wl* 

M*.‘ ' , . J 

he - 

v 1 ?. r 

it.t. •; 

* w. ’ 

i r 

- 1 '• 

' •• '• 

. V 

* \ 


iS . W . 

.J, J* 

• + 'V,', 

■ : v " 

1 NTKOm * TH>N 

H<v Figure 

. i« 

exam pU 

of t he transil iouivl tovm ( f ») o\ \ \w m 


8 oi t lit 

the B 

form of 

VoL 1, IK I 

Tmlo- An an 

y (A) oeeur umwrnmriY ; ' 

in the year 51 : ' : "9H 

No. MX.** li cm totally s»w^ 

u was 

_,... yv* * ** 

the circumstance that in writing the sy 

the economy of time ami effort tn writ tug the new |\ n , U| 
ion in the ease of the subscript But m the % 

c htgly 

w Ph This | s 

?\ yy p, the new form of y i s <* 
is made with a lateral stroke* but the old 


&n the rowel is made with a superior stroke* These YO\v-els* namely, are indioateti 
hv attach hur to the head 


mav run. 

w ill he seen at once that if the lateral stroke was us* 
the old three»pix)nged form of //* its attachment to 

medial or the tight prong was likely to inh 
prong, and thus to obscure the true form and meaning of tin 




\ kK’aYW' mut lotwal 


0\t 1 l * 



e (si 

to write the syllabic 


y-' 0) and M ( f ) 





no vv 





ui c'o 


> I* 

' s 



a ^ 


'nor s i i\ 

s n 

' is luvaru 



(Parts X III) of the 


scribes of the 


gly they also nerer use the new form of y. 

The subjoined Table exhibits all the occurrences of the letter y m the first portion oi 

h the sen. n.l line 

sho.vii in BiUdcr’* ■ 

3 accompanying Pinto. It is also 
.. . . •*.. lt .. , Palvoymphj/, Plate III, 1. 41, 

No. 3. As to tin- Kusbana dates, I follow Dr. Fleet’s theory 

h wow la 


ID tfovnru i‘t 
vm (»i l he 

( 14 AM 'Kit VI 

IWTHuUt < f jon 


m of the 

!H*\v form (coJ. V ), (he only vowel <KHnbin&* 

or) u83 (col. Hi), and that number I# 

But whatever he the true expl&n 

i n combina t ion w i 1 1 1 

l " 1 l>arN , * UI < *»« jf, old Of II. a , and in 0..,oi,ma,bl M j Willi anv mmtA 

.“T* «lk<Ktkor 1,611 ( n, 1,110 , m „ te “ I, id 

1,1 . * M ""' ' ,i ' U>0 1».»W form (transit ional or niodoni), In ih,. i i -i , ,. rT 1 

4 loim, any vowel comlMUfition (exo, uim\ occufh ( un t/ii vi tti mt «»' . . 

II,,., „ Ho wifh the vow, -I, i, m, ,i, ooc.ira 141 '5mm icf.l' Vti 

o„ ti„, ..iLTii, i,r““ *■ with *• “f*** --*«• 

is mad'' wO h ‘fh 011 ) aro tI,0se mtl ' ,! > ai > "> 11,1(1 «>t 1 and in all those 441 cases the von 
is made with the lateral stroke. The total number of the comhiimtion of the vowels f 

a<, 4 au with the consonant y is (142 pl m 111, 

nf fi ' S °, U ^| ^ le T ue8 ti° n to attribute to mere accident the clean distribution 

le superior and lateral strokes between the old and new forms of y respectively : it 

can have been made only of set purpose. And if it is so made, the explanation of its 
i eason, above given, appears to he the most probab]e«^fl^B^BiB^^^^| I 

ation, the fact of the clean distribution is indisputable ; and so is the other fact that 

e new form (transitional and modern) never occurs except i 
the vowels e, ai, 6, au. 

Turning now to the evidence of the dated, or practically dated, records of the Gupta 
period m north-western India, they show that the two facts, just mentioned, occur, in 
conjunction, only in the earliest portion of that period, that is, before 400 A.D. It is 
this ciicumstanoe which enables us to determine, to a degree of close approximation, the 

date of the writing of the Bower Manuscript. The following is a list of the inscriptions 
which, for the present purpose, come into consideration, 

(1) 372 A.D., a calligraphic stone inscription of Vishnuvardhana, at Bijayagadh, 
Long. 77° 20' (F.GI., No. 59, p. 252, Plate xxxviC). In several ways this is an in- 
structive record. The total of the cases of y with any vowel {e.g., yafah, p&rvvdydm, yupd, 
etc.) is eleven. Among them there are two cases of yi and one of y6 (Fig. 23). 
three are made with the lateral stroke ; but yd (a), in sreyd, line 4, is made with the 
modern form, while ye ( b ), in dheydna , 1. 3, and vriddhaye, 1. 4 , 
shows the transitional form. In Gupta inscriptions, as a rule, © 
the lateral stroke is made with a comparatively straight lme, a 
while the superior stroke has a more decided curvature. In the 
present inscription, however, which is written in a particularly 
ornate style, the lateral stroke, also, is given a distinct curva- 
ture. This is seen most strikingly in the -syllable 

me. (c), in m^etasydm, 1. 2. Per contra, we have a good example of the superior stroke in 
the syllable me (d), in vinseshu, 1. 1. Respecting the inconvenience of using the lateral 
stroke in conjunction with the old form of y, wc have a very good illustration in another, 
equally early, though undated, inscription at the same place Bijayagadh (F.GJ., No. 58, 
p. 251, Plate xxxviB). Here the syllable yau (e), in yaudheya, 1. 1, is made, on the left 

Fig, 23. 

d e 

Forms of $0 adn yo in 372 A.D t 

side* with the lateral stroke, curved exactly as in the syllable me (c)> above noticed, the 
effect being that the form of y is quite obscured through the interference of the lateral 
stroke of the vowel au above it ; in fact, it would seem that the form of y, intended 
by the engraver of the record, was the old rather than the new. It was, no doubt, 
kind of interference, which, as previously explained, led to the rule to use the superior 

iNTIionUt T 

> 4 

[ ( 'll Al’TKH V 

• , a 1,1 ***** 1,1.1 i ho In torn I stroke With the new (tn.nsit.onal 01 . mo(l 

• «** < ho ol<1 foKa * 1>ui ,1 ‘° J ’ , ulo s(i n « i„ i l.r making.” 1 

(2) About tOO A.I> . a rock inscription m * 

mi» x\A). Here the total oJ V » _ u .±„ n „ fl ^ 

■HIhHHHHHH ao oq 

* • b 

. 2b.t. J late xuv . . j the new (tvansitional) fovni and 

ie lateral stroke ; and again i n pddopWh W • . 

•ior stroke. In this case, the observance of the distil hut, i\ t 

p. z 



and the supoi 

Vm ' m of yi and v r, 
about 400 A.Ii, 

™,c is*»vlv — . (ralligrai , hi0) ,t IMt Long 7T- W <F.«. 

w — 4N t t P1 , A fi m total of v is eleven, tombina 

No. 01, p. 258, Plato xxxvm A). Heie tuo touu o j 

lions with the vowels * «*, 4, «« do not occur. But once the new tnuua- 

tionan form occurs in the syllabic ya (Fig. 25), in 4 showing 

that by this time that form was no longer limited to the combination of y with 

Fig. 25 


Mathura , Long. 77° 43' (F. GI. 

Fig. 26. 



Forms of ye, yo, ya m 

451 A J). 

those vowels. 

(4) 454 A .IX, a stone image inscription (cursive) at 
3S T o. 63, p. 262, Plate xxxixA). The total of y is eight. lvu‘li, 
y $ and yd (Fig. 20 a and b), occurs once in fiptaye, 1. 2, and 
mpijyt,, \ 4, made with the old form and I ho superior stroke. W 
But here, again, the new (transitional) form (c) occurs once with 

vowel a in yad, line 2. 

In (he two preceding records 91 the appearance oi the now form, on side the range oi 

the vowels 4, &i 3 o, an, is exceptional, and perhaps not altogethcx above suspicion. In 

the following case it is quite plain and certain. 

(5) 465 A. > a copper-plate inscription (cursiie) of Ska ndagupta, at Ind6r, 

Long. 78° 18' (F.GI. No. 16, p. 68, Plate ixB). The total number of y is twenty-five. 
Among them the new (transitional) form occurs five times (Fig. 27) ; quite plainly in 

_ _ — A Jb 


h, 1. 9, and more or less clearly in vijaya , 1. 3, 
!, 1. 8, ddyam , 1. 11, and v riddhaye, l 4. 

Fig. 27. 

n b c a 

Forms of ye, yo, yet in 465 A.D 

Here we have the new form not only with ya and yd (a), S fci 
but In the case of vriddhayS (b), even with the superior stroke 
of the vowel e> On the other hand, the old form occurs 
once (c) with the superior stroke of 3 in vriddhayS , 1. 8, and four times (d) with the 

superior stroke of 6 in randy an ry<>, 1. 6, upaydjya , 1. 7 , yoga, 1. 9 , and yd, 1. TLhHH 
in r riddhaye wo liave, contrary to the original rule, the superior stroke oi the vowel e 
written either way, with the new form in line 4, and with the old form in line 8. Clearly, 
at this time, the original rule, governing the use of the new form, had become entirely 
obsolete. It might be used, at pleasure, in combination with any vowel, and in combina- 
tion with either of the two kinds of stroke. 

(6) 482-533 A.D. This period of about fifty years includes a group of similarly 
worded copper-plate inscriptions (cursive), which all come from the same neighbourhood 
near the boundary of the eastern area ; viz from Kh6h, Long. 80° 5L, dated 482, 496, 

516, 528, and 533 A.D. (F.GI. Nos. 22, 25, 27-31, pp. 100 if.), 

s 1 Chftre ar« two other dated inscriptions, the etono pillar 
B*mption of 415 A.D. at Bilsad, Lon^. 79^16' (F.GT. 
Xo. 10, p. 42), and the Jain inscription at Mutlmii, ! 

Ions. 77° 48' (Ep, lad., Vol. II, p. 2IO, No. XXXIX) ! )> at 

neither pixsent any inutaHOe o£ the new form. 

TFV*- • i-. is ,* .* ' j. *-• *. •' ' • , r ~ - - * - * u r ' Io. r ...... 1 * i'. . 


X , ,> 

1 N l liiini i Tl'Ojf* 

4®. lltn A,|). (K,()t jy 

V r ■ -- 

l_iT «|>'F 

„ - .•» . 

-♦ . • ii 


** V • 'I 7 *‘ 

■•» T r Lxt 



■/-.v' • - 
- -t * 

■ . 1 i.i 

■ - ■- ' :Vui 

r - '• > . - 

. # *», p. 106).*' At this 'time ^"7 i ! njhf?mw ‘- Ung. H0»47’ 

« * foun.1 i„ not influ * *** ^ ““ ’ 

?***♦ of * n y rule. Thus we 

■ •. '.i. 

■ < . i 



|W OftO f , ) 

il»o tmnsitionnt ™ w « “*v< 

./#><» ;unl | ^ (a),]. 8 

and , , *• '• ’ (MI. 

PI*. 98. 

* both 

oil <£i 


4 • ' * " • 

• • r. h ' 

• j ■ r »^ • 



SV:\ ■ • 

r ’ 

r,:;,:., . 

1 <»)•’ 

tROl. pp, 122-3); 






30 (RGI. p, 127) . 

rife .Baja ( ■ ■ 

y orm* of yd, yu t y4 t and yd in 482—633 A.D. 


, * 

, 1. 8 

.. .. 

" 1 pi'atydydi id), ]. 

18 (F,GI. p. 122 ) « So also the ol/Lfnew * ** 5 ? ^ y “ in *“**« <*>» L 

i’- mb 1. 1 <».. p. mtSSTS^ft 1 17 <Mi * - • 

fO i»Mmi &U5kl u iW^K l7 ! RG !' f 

we lmve aM • - , ’ . 10 ®'» two ? 00( 1 »nd clear example*. 

118-9) J vriddim i# l 14 «* ^ 1 ft y ?! 1 10 ’ ld P a .y<i ( ’ 1 12, jpfo^tt* (A), L lf> F.GI. 

*m, wi .un ^ 21 (F - GI -P- m 1, 133). 

. IRtioaw yo itt ohhfitfd (»), 1. is (F.GI. p. 119), 1. 16 U- t& 

hut ) . • • " UH r " // M 11 3 *** L 1 t 10 (F.GI. p. 108), two good examples t 

, ' ’ P )> n< g< >i.,h, |, 12, pmtyayd, 1. 17, ohhrSyd, 1. 23, yo, 1. 28 (F GI bd 127-81 

t'hhrrwi Y#il. f> «„• 1 a/wn.T .. . *f. ° ) ' W1, PP* A “< 

On the ot her hand 

ekhreyo h,) t |. 5, yo, l OfFGI on iw n 111 „ j , 5 “* *Tr- 

r , • 01, I’P- l good examples. And, again, the ne» 

^ y*>* I*** «».l— - ‘I- superior s , ro Ll ihus, Z 

transitional y<- with the Jnl <•«! siroke occurs in nydySm (o), 1. 13, 9 s, 1. 16 but with the 

Llivunui it* . i it.* \\j - v » > . * . a i i 4 , , . * * / i n /i w * -t- — ~ ^ . 

superior stroke in pnilyay,- (»), 1, f) (|'.(Jj., pp. 136-7) 

(7) 830-o33 A.D., tho iamou* group of calligraphic stone inscription; 

iikui, at MaiutaH^r, Jjoug. 75 8 (1,01,, Nos. 83, 84, 35, pp. 142 ff., Plates xxiB C 

4 5 \ ^Ht,4 4V .. 1 J ? 1 1 1 t fl r L * • 


rimsc records further exemplify, in the interior of the western area the use 

• ' 1 | * i jft # i « .4 a « « 

^ ^ T vouv/i u chi Wit? USC 

of the new mm to comlnnaliou with the superior and lateral strokes. In bhiiraydyena 

(Fig. 29«), 1. 8 (ib>, p. 188, J J J. xxii), we iiave the two 

* w it i I * 81 ■ * w .4 m m « * 

? m tjo 

o auto by huw , tao Hupenor impiHllp 
with the old form, and tho lateral stroke in y& with the 

Fig. 29. 

new (tra 

n in 

occurs in i 

fittyd yd, 1. A, W . 

and 1 MU, we have, in one copy (6), the two forms of y 

_ . .. - . . . j / J 1 V 

by side, tlie old in yd and tho 

In the other copy (o) 

Forms of y* and yn in 630 633 A.l). 

yo are wr 

with Itlie lateral stroke in yd. HPBB .11 

witii the old form, hut yd lias the superior 

sriptious wc find still in 

growing obsolescent in tin- cursivcly written inscriptions of Nos. 4-6. i | 

or archaismii will be noticed in Np ®^ 

T”" > ^ 

• f T -r r # k.-» •. • 4.-* V 1 1 . 

la theaps 



wc saw 


si ti king example of this conservatism 


* A m m mmpk of « moilorn ,« m to » ooHAd-rUk Brtul, Loog. 78- 22'. pnlOUhod iu E P . M„ V,.J. VIII, P- •* 
ui8i*iij»ii«u of tho wo.u« pwriil, of yvdht*{h%r&% . » t> 

' m * r , I 


i ~ . It .* * . 

’ ..'ii- 

... * ' 

’ A--.." r 

Av s r :, , 

. * . 

_ J? 


■ r.^‘ if •< f 

r i ■-•, i./.ViH 

. V 3 

, V, >- 

. 4 * ■ tk i-j 

>A.. • 




.-’•O-'. | ‘ r" 

• , k '-.a" 


kl ' 


v r» 


>r‘* . > 


liv intugouotjon. 

(8) 580-600 A. lb, a group of Mono niHinripl ion* (niliigrnpb[<p t> OUi * 

*#> (F.GI„ No*. 71. 7:2*70, v\k *74 *78, MXt Hate* 

last ( \o. 7 L is dalod in 58 S A. I).* the third, nmlntnd, mimt bo * a , JH * il|> 

rti > It . mi, > i k s. * k t K., « K 4 t . fiimi ilin IliUT i * k t 1 I il 1 HI rl H i A , . I . /ili 

Titis group shows that by this time the new form .had not only |>em t rut< , (i 
eastern am, hut had also fully superseded the old form. The lal (or is ent ind fl * f ****** 
these inscriptions : among a total of 34 cases of jf, there is not a si ugi ti 
old three-pronged form! The transitional form still predomi mitts U \< r th ' 
there being 20 cases of the former to 8 of the latter. In agreement with the } f* 0 ^**! 
of the old form, the original rule respecting the distributive use of flu* n ,. w *- 
entirely inoperative : that form is now used with every kind of vowel. Seep'** ** ***** 

Thus we find ya in No. 71, lines I (modern, a), % 3 lm t 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 bin, 1 \ (tentt^ ^ 
transitional, b) ; in No. 72, three times (modern) ; -- **>*11 

in No. 76, 1. 1, twice transitional, once modern. 

Again, we have yd in No. 71, 11. 4, 6, 9, 12, 13, 14 

Fig, 30 . 

a a < 


(all transitional, c),land yi in No. 71, 1. 11 (transi- 
tional, d) ; and?/?/, in No. 71, 11. 1,4 (both transi- 
tional, e). Further, the new form is used ad 
libitum with the superior or the lateral stroke. 




F orms of ya, yd, yi* P<> M yo in 600-560 A D 

same a$ 

Thus we have ye with the transitional form and superior stroke (/) in yena, No. 71 l a 

and in avaptaye , No. 76, L 2 ; and with the modern form and superior strode (a) 

in avaptaye , No. 72, and with the same form and lateral stroke (A) in yena, No, 71, \ \ 

Similarly we hare yd with the transitional form and lateral stroke (t) in ybdhat, No. 71 

1. 1, and possibly also (k), in the superscript y of acharyyd , No. 76, 1. 1, and in $emyor, 

No. 76, 1. 1. So also, we have yau with the transitional form and lateral stroke in 
upddhy&yaUf No. 76, J, 1. 

(9) Seventh century. The prevailing conditions are, on the whole,^^^|IH| 
in the preceding period, except that tlie transitional y is gradually giving way entirely to 
the modern y. The last instances of it appear to occur, in 672 A.D., in two stone inscrip- 
tions of Adityasena, at Aphsad, Long. 85° 44; and Shahpur, Long. 85° 13' (F.GI.,X<* 
42 and 43, pp. 200 and 208, Plates xxviii and xxixA ). Here we find both yd and yr, in 
the transitional form ( Fig. 31 a and b ) ; viz., yd, in praydga , J* 7 of No. 42, and yi ift 

vriddhay e, 1. 4 of No. 43. At this time the old form of y has become entirely obsolete, 

except in archaic and highly ornate 

inscriptions, of 625 A.D., at Vasantgadb. 

Long. 73° (Bpujraphia Indica , Yol. XI, 
p. 187), and of 661 A.D. at Udaipur, Long. 

73 (ibid., \ ol. IV, p. 29). Their ornate 
fo ms V$> t/ai> yd, wit 1 1 the old three- 
pronged y, are shown in Fig. 31 c, d, e. But 

rig. 31 







Forms of yd) ye, y<> in 025-07 2 A l y 

t hen' 

are several other examples of archaism in them which have been pointed out by 
Kidton V„l. IV, p. 29). It S» obrio™, tb„rafo re , that »• of « 

^ m entional i they belong to the studied ornate character of the inscript ions in q 
th t aic, the occurrence of the old form of y really corroborates t| 

n or i nary writing, whether calligraphic or cursive, that form of y 

* toot 


Chapter V 

■ . ..■■ 9S58B83g --- ■ ■. 

. " 0_ * *“ l “ ML ’ 1,1 mo seventli centurv** Tv,™ ; . . * v 

A^ /r ° XCCptioiml> as Aownby the highly f* ** <* «t®«§4 

<•'>; *» *» w* “ *r ***** * p%. 5 

laid down by me in 1891 ( Journal As Soe T? ^ v “ anuscn P ts )' therefore, the rule 
the form of y is the test, and that Indian wi-r 5J* LX ’ P ' StiH holdg good that 

adding as they W the use of ^^jS^SSSSS^^ 
the neighbourhood of Katmandh^ ' Lotg. 85 ° W ^rT • Nep “ 1 f Se in 8 * ari P Ko « s **f from 

north-western new form of w comes int «, ’ w uc}l ls witlnn the eastern area. The 

seventh century, in an insmktW *L /£ f c ' wls . fi rst » the second half of the 





o " if r a 

as with either kind of stmkp mi i° ' ' g ^ sed Wlttl an F T °wel as well 

No. 11, % g, y ah | modern , in No mociern y« m N* Ill, 1. 18,y«f*a ; m 

modern yi in No 11 1 9 i i <u . u ’ ‘ aQ d m 2vo. 11, 1, 13 prandKMg&f; 

No. 11 1 i ■ V' i «Ste* V». rn No. HI, 1. 29, 3 fa 

II ... 9 t ’/ ‘. we boy® modern ye, tvitli the superior stroke in No. Ill ■/ 

II 25-36 ; aotero „«,» rth the superior etroke, m No. 11, L 23, UyMi; nmdem go, w„h 

stroked V ’f*? “ N °' nl ' 1 12, **■ aiKl “ Na U > 1 22 > “«?■>. tat with the bfefal 

stroke in JN o. 11, 1. 4, yd . 

J/ ie / statetics > » lven in the foregoing paragraphs, may be summarised s 
lie distributive rule referred to in them is based on the two facts, (1) that 

is used only with the syllables ye, yai , yo, yau , while with other syllables the old form is 

used ; and (2) that the new form is used with those syllables when they are made with the 

lateral stroke, but when they are made with the superior stroke, the old form is used* 

About 372 A.D. this rule is “ in the making ” ; about 400 A.D. it is in full force; from 

about 425 A.D. it gradually obsolesces ; about 550 it has become inoperatfr 

formation enables us to sketch, with considerable precision, the progress of 

of applying the new form of y, which was already in use in ligatures, to that letter when 

it occurred as a non-conjunct. 

(1) This fashion arose in the western portion of the northern area of the Gup: a 
script, about the middle of the fourth century A.D. Thence, in the latter half of the sixth 
century ( in India, but of the seventh century in Nepal ), it spread into the eastern 

portion of hat area. 

(2) The fashion was at first limited to the syllables ye, yai , yd, ym, when their 
vowel was written with the lateral stroke. This is shown by the way in which the new 
form is used in the Bower Manuscript i and the period of this stage of the fashion is 
fixed by the epigraphic records of Northern India (ante, Nos. 1 and 2) as the second half 

of the fourth century A.D. 

** Examples are the calligraphic Banshhera copper -p^ 6 
of Harsh a, 628 A.D. (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 208), and the 

calligraphic, hut undated, hakhamandal and Kudarkdt 
imcHplions (ih., Vol. I, pp. 10, 179), which are referable to 

the middle of the seveutli century- 

86 According to the local era, discovered 
Sylvain Iievi ; see £*/>• Itid., Vol. V, 

By the Harsh a era it would be 688 A d>. 


x* p>- TSjj 




ifcii y 



I 1 

was soon 

al ) atuloned. I? ro in 

- > 1 

\, 8k the fashion of using the now form 





. jj I I Hp . ^PHjHI I - ’ Hig 

to any vowel 

and to eif her the lateral or the superior stroke 


(4) By the end of the 

in ail conditions of 


• y, as to 

old form {ante. Nos. 8-10) 

The preceding s 

of the chronology 

the time of the 

and spread of the new 





t nearer 

j>. 1, shows that in 


y occurs 583 times (col. 

it is probable that it should be 

that period. The 

given on 

the Bower Manuscript the letter 

combinations ye, yai , yd, and yau. 


, it occurs no less than 1,02 

. I) . If at the time of 

of the new form of y to cases outside 

, it 18 


single example of 


occur among those 1,028 cases 

to be that 

writing of the earlier portion of the Bower 

350-375 A D. And seeing that the three 

script (Part JV, Parts V and VII, and Part VI) must be, as 

(p. xlviii), it 

fd quarter of the fourth century A.D. 


X X \ V 1 


! a a^ikh Vjj 




(1) In the existing fragmentary state of Part I, it is difficult to deUuniiru; 
the particular class of medical literature to which the treatise contained in % 
should be assigned. It commences with a kalpa, or small pharmacog rapine tract, 
on garlic ( Allium sativum, Linn.) This tract consists of the initial t or iy- three 
verses, including between them eighteen or nineteen different, mostly more or I 
unusual, metres. Their list, given at the end of Chapter VII, shows that the most 
frequent among them is the vascmta-tilalca with eight verses, while the 
known SldJca comes only second with six verses. The tract is preserved in almost 
perfect order; the end of every verse (except two, vv. 29 and 35) is marked with 
a double stroke. The concluding verse 43 alone is seriously mutilated, but for- 
tunately its statement as to garlic (lasuna) being the subject of the tract (kalpa) 
is preserved. That subject is represented in verse 9 as having been communicated 
by the sage (ynuni ) King of Kasi (ICaSi-rdjct) to Susruta. By the sage, in all pro- 
bability, Divodasa is intended, also known as the divine surgeon Dhanvantari ; 
and SuSruta undoubtedly refers to the celebrated author of what is now known as 
the Susruta Samhitd . But it may be noted that in the concluding verse 13, the 
author, whoever he was, refers to himself in the first person (uMo may a). 

The tract, or kalpa , on garlic is followed by another tract which might be 
described as a short t antra, or text book, comprising a number of very miseeliane- 
ous sections, arranged in a rather unmethodical fashion. It commences with re- 
marks on the importance of regulating digestion (vv. 44-51), and with some 

pharmaceutic directions (vv. 55-59), such as are usually found in the so* 
sntra*sthdna, or section on the principles of medicine, of a samhitd. Interspersed 
are some alterative and aphrodisiac formulae (vv. 52-54, 60, 61-67), such as ajre 
usually given in the Samhitd sections on rasayana and vdjikarana. Next comes 
a section with formulae for various eye-lotions ( aschyotana , vv. 68-36). This 
is followed by another on face plasters (mukha-lepa, valaua-pralepa, vv. 87-105) 
and collyria {any ana, viddlaka ) and remedies for the hair, etc. (vv. 106-120); 
and finally there is a section on cough-mixtures (vv. 121-124). This second tract 
differs from the preceding in two respects. First, it employs only three metros, 
the sldka (44 verses), tristubh (30 verses) and dr yd (6 verses) ; and secondly, it 
uses the double stroke to mark, not the end of a verse, but the end of a formula 
(consisting of one or more verses) or of a section. In both respects it resembles 
the treatise of Part II. 

(2) Part II contains a practical formulary, or handbook of prescriptions, coveuB© 
the whole field of internal medicine. It is called the Ndvanitaka or “ Cream, ” and l >r0 

Chaptbb V.TIT J 


fe8S0S to give, for the use of the practitioner, a solocl ton « . 
tho standard medical works of the time; and | hooch i h 1 “ f***&S*m> ^n« m 

*** ■" - *> ««* & r«£$“ S ist - «* - 

it S^es some formulas which seem to be- taken fmm ft, « 1- “ ' . J/ifl,tlon to these, 
as a very few which appear to have been added h «. modlcal tradition, as well 

The fcvmutory mi •*>** »»> * 

° lnall y dlvldod mto sixteen cha ptcr&^^H^^H 

tho intention of its author, as may be J , CUa P tcrs - P*» at least, was 

enumerates the headings of the sixteen oh T" Z mtroduction 8 and 9), which 
the intention was todT h T ^ ^ 

completed, it is now impoLblo to sav Jl! 

Bower Manusenpt is moompleto, as the fifteenth and sixteenth 22f a «fi » 
apparently tiie conclusion of fourteenth are missing. P ’ 1 a ' 

The division of the chapters, and the distritotton of the formula, over them, are 
not mad. on any unitary pnncplo. Some formal® are put together on tte prinkpl. 
o le form » hich is given to the medicament ; others, on the principle of the purpose 
winch the medicament is to subserve ; others, agaiu, on the principle of the kind of pa- 
tients to whom the medicine is to be administered ; and finally, some chapters are added 
describing some important “ simple!,” vegetable or mineral. Thus, under the first prin- 
ciple we have the initial three chapters, which enumerate formulae for preparing coia- 
pound powders {charm), medicated ghees or clarified butters (ghrita), aud medicated oils 
(taila) respectively. The second principle is applied from two different aspects, aceord- 
ing as the purpose ot a medicament is, either to relieve or cure an abnormal condition 
of the system, or to stimulate or improve its normal functions {see note 327 on page 144 . 

• Under the former aspect a large number of formulae are collected in the fourth chapter, 
referring to some twenty-two or twenty-four, not always clearly distinguished, diseases, 
the details of which may lie seen in the Table of Contents, prefixed to this edition. Tiie 
principle, however, is not quite strictly observed in the chapter ; for right into the middle 
of it, two formal e are pitchforked, which belong to the preceding principle tthe form of 
a medicament), vis., one (vv. 48 t-490) referring to the preparation of a linetus {Uha), 
the other (vv. 491-493), to the preparation of a kind of medicated mead { midkvasava ). 
Tiie reason why they are inserted here apparently is that their purpose is purgative and 
alterative respectively; but even in that case, their proper place would be under the 
second aspect of the therapeutic principle. In this connection it may also he noted that 
none of the formulae in Chapter I V may be understood as a “specific, 
the formula is stated to cure a number of, sometimes, very different diseases ; but on< 
of these was thought to be its principal object, and this particular disease was, as a rule 
indicated by being named at the head of the number. Under the second aspect of th< 
therapeutic principle, formulae are distributed over the six Chanters Y-X. treatin 


aspect of the 


enemas {vasti’Icarma, see note 142 on page 105), alteratives {rasayana), gruels 
aphrodisiacs {vrishya), collyria (ywtranjana) , and hair dyes {kesa-ranjana) re 
TTnrtor tim fiiiwi nmnninio refer?*! ti o* to tli c kind of uatient, we have the three i 

% * t# * w v ' 

Under the third principle, referring to the kind of patient, we 
chapters of the treatise, of which, however, only the fourteenth chapter on 

children survives, while chapters XV and XVI, dealing w ,+u 

women, respectively, are missing. 

the di 

there come in the 

r "-y* 

*:■ / j 

* Ai 





XI-XIII, containing small monographs on chebulic myrobalau, plumba<*o-root 


1 “ • F ^' « 

■ wl , 

S' .'tv 

’ V'* J ! 

(3) Part III is another specimen of an ancient formulary, or manual of prescriptions 
It is probably, however, a mere fragment of what was, or was intended to be, a lar» 
work. The existing fragment corresponds to the initial poi’tion, that is, to Chapters 
WII, of the formulary in Part II ; for it contains formulae put together on tin* 
principle of the form of the medicament. But though put together on that principle 
the formuhe are not arranged in any consistent order : powders, ghees, oils. pUi H 
1 inetures and liniments are mixed up, as shown in the subjoined list : — * 

- < . , T •••> : . 
# • -V 

v ■ 

5 XA 

M t j 

. \ h < 

. ; Vf. 

Oils, forrnul® Non. I, II, III, VII. 

x*:sF *? 

(2) Powder, ,, 

No. IV. 


Nos. V, Vlil/ix, xm. 

Ghee, formula No. VI. 

(5) Pills, „ Nos. X, XII, XIV. 

(8) Liuctus „ No. XI. 

' • 7 l ' > - . ' Sv t 

. ■ > : * ■ ’ .\ 7 v ; 



Table of Paral 

ix Parts II and III. 

Column I gives references to verses and pages of the edition ; columns II and III 

to identical or similar formuhe in other works; column IV indicates formulae to which 

<; , • 

no parallels are known, and column V, formula* or parts of formulae which were 

probably written by the author himself. The initials arc explained in the List of 


s pre 
on the translations. 

to this edition. For further details on parallels, see the notes 

I It i m iv v 

» and pngvs. identic*!. 



id ftiical. similar, no p*r,anthor. 


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vv. 71 750, p. 88 


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m l 121 And 211 at t l m very end of t 

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• r 

At the end of the Pdsaka-kevali 

No. 70 of iji# 


A in the list on page 214, in the Appendix to Part V), there is an appendix *rntt*n 
the modern Gujarati vernacular language, which explains the modus opemnMm 
Pi of It runs as follows ; 

Tathae sakandvalz-nd pdso ndktivd-m viddhi lakhii chkai pdso sakw jdfi if&£„ 

rmm 3 vdr ndinkhn j pehelo pade telinuin settle dam garni 



I is 



HHHHJ pogod am pade, t4 Pfj 

be pagadd m pade dhuri , to 200 garni § Irani pagadd* a pade pekeliA, id $$$ 

chydr pagaddm pade 9 to 400 ganii § phani pdso bijicdr ndinkhU ttkdrm peg* 
dam j ede, to £k dmk eVdo ganii |[ im be pegadumpade, to 2 { trani pade , to 3 j ehfr 
padai t td £§.|f» triji-wr pa#i jdnavum\\ pachhe pehelum satkadunhl^^^^^K 


" 74 


CL tlO t m 

bdr-nd dink Skaithd kijai J] jetald dwS , tetald upari dink jotnai sakan joie f etale 1 

p" . 

pehaluin Sb pade | pack hi be pade | pachhi triji-bar trani pade i to 123 , ek *o mi trim- 

that | im pehelum be 

mi ter-n6 dmk dwai j| ini 

paelfhe ek pade pachhe trani pade j to 213 
m sahi 


This may be thus translated : ** The mode of throwing the divination die ($**$> 

singular) is as follows. When the die is wanted for an oracle (Skr. Sakuna), it must be 
thrown three times ; and the first cast must be counted as hundred. 

■ -A 

. • 1 -• 

( pagadam , sing.) falls, it counts 00 ; if two pips ( pagadd /h , plur.) fall, they count 200 ; 

1 ‘ ‘“'••J*’" 4fc 

if three pips fall in the first cast, they represent 300 ; if four pips fall, they count 401 


Next, the die (pdso, sing.) is thrown for the second time. Then, of the pips that Ml, oae 

counts as the figure {dmk) 1 ; similaily if two pips fall, they are 2 ; if three fall, 3; a 

four fftiy 4. In the same way, the cast of the third time must he understood Finally, de 

hundred of the first throw, and the figures (amk) of the second and third, must be placed 

E * 

together. Whatever (combined) figure results, upon that the oracle must be 
Thus, if first one falls, next two fall, next, at the third throw, tbree^^H 

* . * 

It IS 

■ Jtd 

figure 123, one hundred and twenty-three. Similarly, if at the first ( 

two fall, next one falls, next three fall, the result is the figure 213, two 


This is the correct manner of proceeding.” 

It is clear from this explanation that in the ancient Indian art of 

die was used ; and that the die indicated only the four numbers. 

V • 

, 4 pips on four different faeets. A die in the form of a 

, 4 - - - V 


but the existence of a tetrahedral die at any time ^ 

-of thing. 

■ ■ - 

It seems probable, therefore, that the die was ont 

sides and two rounded ends, 


, or knucklebone, and on which the four long sides were * 
tile die bad the ordinary cubical form, two of its six equal rides 

• ' ' ;,?v 

„-v • ; r ‘f-' ■: "■ . '•ST. 'X , , I 


j '•* %‘c > -Y 



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1 \y 1 ~ 1 

Ohaptjsr VTTT 

&ve borne no pips 
otic of the two 

i * 

itud then there 


r u hue a the not 

to contemplate 
At the same 

» turning up in any of tho ' tl *f U ' H ‘ W,U * 

In such » o«ise, of course, tho throws would have had to !. 0 1^1^*?*™ “** 

marked facet turned up; but the explanation abovo-quoted does * MBB * i * 

the occurrence of such an eventuality, which is not even 

time there occurs in the Introduction to the manual in Part TV ft • _ 

an obscure phrase which may point to the die having had the fom ^ S 

f h r-)- T 7“.*' vo ,7“” ^ , to od ou ti,„ u™ ,i,w ,u„ SS 

Another explanation of the phrase, however, is possible which is given in note 1 Vn 

page 197. There is also another difficulty in the circumstance that the introduction 
(11. 2, b on page 192) scales of dice in the plural number « m av 

the dice fall. But the reference may very well be, not to the number of several dice. 

but the number of oasts of a single die. 


used, the number of the dice, of course, would have been three ; and each act of divi. 
nation would have required but a single east, t he three dice being thrown at one time. 
They would probably have been loose ; though at the present day the dice of the Indi 


cubomancei , which moieovei aie four in number, are strung on a short thin iron rod. 

of this kind of modern cuboraanoy is given on pp. -Ms- 16 of Peterson* 
Third lteport on the Search of Sanskrit 118S. in the Journal of tile Bombay _ _ 
of the Itoyal Asiatic Society, Extra No. for 1887, in connection with a work called 
Ramalamrita, or “ the fine art of Eamal.” Tho Arabic term ramal signifies goonumey or 
any kind of divination, specially eubomanoy. The performer always, or often, is a Mu* 
hammodan. In the above-mentioned case, reported from Bombay, the four dice seem to 
have been immovably fixed on the rocl; but in a case examined by mo in Calcutta, they 
were loosely strung on the rod round which they could rotate freely, though t hoy were 
secured from falling off the rod by two rod-heads. This mode of eubomanoy, howe\ or, 
seems to be a comparatively modern importation into India, and is. there! 


relevant to the understanding of the mode of eubomanoy which forms tho subject of the 

two manuals. 

These two manuals are quite independent works. Their oracles, though of course 
touching on similar subjects, are totally different compositions, of much greater length 
in Part V than in Part IV. In early Indian times several eubomantic manuals appear 
to have been current. The manuals, which survive at the present day ami are as- 
cribed to the authorship of the Sage Garga, possess a few striking points of agreement 
with the manual in Part V. The subject of those agreements is fully discussed in the 

with the manual injpart ^.|IJpheiSnl||oofc 

ix to Part V, pp. 21-1 ff. The evidence points to tho existence of throe rather 

‘ what may possibly have boon originally a single manual. 
The latter might possibly be represented by the recension preserved in the Bowm 

jript. This recension is of considerable antiquity. 



it may have existed as early as the second century A.l). (ante, p. Ixi), and ol course rt 
may go I jack to a much earlier time. The other existing recensions cannot he older th 

1 * V in — ML 1 . ’ ' 9 4 

the end of the fourth century 

I V- ^ 

the end ot the fourth century, because in the fifth vers© of their iidrochuHiun tin,) 
of cuhoiimncors as possessing hth % a-j$&na r or the knowledge of tho tbn t r utt vi e#4 




(Greek &p) t or lunar m i nylons (lathi damns). The first mention 

■■■ I J <« i that ^ 

been tmoed by Professor Jacobi (in his dissertation de a^trologiae indi&ac kora *** **** 

*'#«$, Bonn 1872) to Firmieus Mater n us, who lived about 335*850 a t\ « 

West, whence it came to the knowledge of the Indians. 

>« th, 

or some further information 

the subject of Indian cuboxnancy the student may be referred to A, Weber’s pane 

1 f _ _ Jl * 1 . 1 rr t * t i 1 i ' i ir\ t * « 1 i 


Ui the 

158 flL and 

ler Kgl. Preussisehen Akademie der Wissehsehaften, Berlin 
in the Indische Streifen, voL I, pp. 274* ff. ; also to Dr, J. E. Sehtfitv *' 


* f 



Inaugural Dissertation on Pa£aka-k&vali t ein indisehes Wtofelorakel (Borna 
The latter contains a critical edition of the recension of the manual on euboma 

ascribed to Garga. HH 

(6' Parts VI and VII contain two different portions of the same text, which 
a SUra or D id raai referring to a charm protective against snakebite and other evils 
The name of the Sutra is Mahdmdyuri Vidydrdjni (scl. Dhdrant ) , lit,, thoH 
peacock* queen of charms. It apparently takes its name from the fact that the peafowl 
ayura) is the great traditional enemy of the snake. It is a oh arm of great repute 
among the Buddhists, and is included in the highly valued collection of l)hdntnh % 

rakslid , or the Five Protective Charms. In this collection it usually takes 
the third place (see Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit MSS. m Cambridge, No. 1325, p. 48 } 
etc; Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS., Part II, in Oxford, No. 1447, p. 257, and Catalogue of 
Buddhist Sanskrit Literature in Calcutta, No. B4, pp. 164-S and p. 173) ; but sometimes 
the second (see the Oxford Catalogue, No. 1448, p. 259. and apparently the Cambridge 

No. 16 j2 : p. 162), or the fourth (see Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit MSS, of the 
eiety, No. 58, p. 42). The Pancha-rakshd itself is sometimes found includ- 
ed in certain larger Dhd ray ?- ma ntr t -$a mg ra h a, or Collections of Dharani charms (see the 
Oxford Catalogue, No. 1449, p. 260, and the Calcutta Catalogue, No. Bo, pp. 80, 292). 

In the P ancha- rales ha collection, however, the Mahdnidyuri charm exists in a greatly 

This expanded recension, as may be seen from the Chinese translations 
of the charm, appears to have developed in the course of the fifth or sixth centuries A.D. 
There are six such translations enumerated in Nanjio’s Catalogue of the Chinese Tripi- 
taka, Nos. 306-311. Three of them are based on the expanded recension of the Sutra, while 
the three others exhibibit the Sutra in a more primitive and much less developed form. 
To the former belong two translations of the eight century A.D. (Nos. 306 and 307), done 
It-sing in 705 A.D., and Amoghavajra in 743-771 A.D. respectively; and a some- 
what shorter translation of the sixth century (No. 808), made by Sanghapala in 510 

- ** . ' L- V, - * td’'*' » * 1 _ d w m \ 

A.D. The three more primitive recensions (Nos, 309, 310, 318) belong all to the 

fourth century A.D., viz. two by Poh Srimitra under the Eastern Tsin dynasty, 317- 

\ A.D., and one by Kumarajiva under the later Tshin dynasty, 384-417 
time these six translations were made, the Mahdmdy uri Sutra seems to have s 

p 8 a separate work, and formed a component part of thf^^||H 

ion. That collection would seem to have originated in Bengal under the 
P&la dynasty, not earlier than the tenth or eleventh centuries A.D- £° r 

ii a ineiy^ , the 3faod^^^^ 

pmmardini 8uim s was translated into Chinese (Nanjkvs No. 784), when it was « 
separate work, by Shim (Danapala ?) about 980-1001 A.D., while the Pa^ha-rff Mil 
Jection itself, being a late production, does not seem to have been translated 

Chinese at all. 


another of the later component parts of the Pancli a - / vt ks k (t , namely . 




ii >r; d ,C* «* », 1 •*£,-' /+ 

• 1 , .- iki i - , 




1 1 

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collection un.1 llie Boveor Manwoript, may bo ion from tl™w,d£ f“S ?, Z 
VInnd VII (pp, »***, Pa* include Pair an 5* 

(about one-seventh) of tho modern expanded version of the S&tra, viz. its second and third 
section. The former relates the story of the monk Sv&ti and his recovery from the fatal 
bite of a snake through the application of the Mahftm&yurl charm ; the latter, the story 
of the obtain meht of that charm by Buddha in one of his former births (j a taka) as the 
king of the peacocks (ynay ura-vdj a ) . These two stories would seem to have made up the 
whole extent of the original Sfitra before its subsequent enormous accretions. From the 
Bower Manuscript it appears that the copy of the Sutra included in it was written for the 
benefit of a person (probably a monk or abbot), called Ya^&mitra, whose name, as usual 
in such cases, was inserted at the end of Ifie copy. This copy, being written on birch- 
bark of an inferior quality (see Chapter II), after a time became seriously damaged : the 
obverse of the folio, on which the second story commenced, flaked off entirely, and that 
portion of the manuscript which contained the first story appears to have been destroyed 
altogether. The latter was now replaced by a fresli copy, written on a new supply of 
birch-bark of a superior quality. This fresh copy is the existing Part VI of the Bower 


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asafoetida, the three aerirk® pa n A , , 

obalto, zedoary. AiamMu m 1 & t ^ Stnphama ^rnandifolw) , 
* i t- , . ’ ^ < > {C a rum Rox burn Iiianmn ) . A 1 a/ nvmlh a 

( 8 P Tlns l 10 ^ d ^7 nay ] ! C takcn ’ as arL bailing medicine 27 , at the time of 
one * ^ 00C an( C imk ' 5 ^ dn ink either just before them or with them, 

0V simply Avith warm water. (32) It is a remedy for severe pains in the side or in the 

jjeart or in ^bc bladder, for tumours caused by excess of air or phlegm, for attacks of 
chronic diarrhoea or piles, for spleen, morbid pallor 7 , and Loss ol appetite, (33) for costive- 
nesSt strangury, and diseases of the womb and the rectum, for obstruction in the chest, 
eouffh, hiccough, asthma, and stricture of the throat. (34) Or the same powder may be 
repeatedly macerated - ' in the juice of citrons, and then made up into pills of one karsha 9 

or more. 

» r fiiis formula. hut under the name of ITivgv-ddt powder, 

H found identically in Ch.. TI, 6 4J » (w. 75-80), Chd., XXX, 
l\ 3®, and V., XXX 478 (w. 70-7 o). 'there are, however, 
the following differences: (1) all three hare madyena for 
UakUno : (2) Ch. and Chd. have kdrmukdk ‘ efficacious ’ for 
Idrskikdh ; (3) V, has pancJia-lctvanam ‘live salts’ for 
Jjrane dve. The reading madyena agrees also with the 
corresponding phrase gh arm -dmlu-s urd-man $a ‘ warm water 
and dear wine * in Charaka’s shorter version of the formula (VI, 

. 4v)^ YV g 5 gg). The reading kdrmukdk tato ’ dhikam would 

mean that the pills, thus made, are ‘ efficacious even more than 
when the powder is used in the other way.’ Both readings 
give good sense. The same formula, in another recension, 
in sloka verses which arranges the ingredients in a different 
order, is given in Sa IX, 6 12 h . A third recension, again 
arranging the ingredients in a different order, is found in 
V, XXX 479 (vv. 76-78) and BhP., II, 3 24 ; in the former, 

under the name of D vitrya-hingv-adi-c h mma * a second 
Hingvadi powder.’ This recension is in the Sardula Vikn- 
dita metre, hut it has an app endix in the Vasanta Tilaka 
metre, which states that ‘this is the original ( ddya) Hingvadi 
formula, as given in the i) svina-Samhita. It would follow 
from this remark that the recension given in our Manus ci ipt 
is a later re-cast of the formula. A fourth recension in 
prose, and arranging the ingredients, again differently, 

is given in S., IV, 5 410 (§37) 8Y., XXX, 1 :65 , aoi 

XXX tSi . The latter adds to it the remark iti hinyvadt- 
taU ka-pi'ak&rah samskriten^dktah, i.e., ‘this is a levise 
version of the formula for Hingvadi pills. Susruta, moie 
over, states that the pills are to he made aksha-matra, i.e., 

‘ of as much as an aksha! An aksha is the same as a karsha 
( s ee ante, note 9), and this, therefore, supports the reading 
*&rt.tika of our Manuscript. A fifth recension in tnshtubh 
'ei*ses, and once more re-arranging the ingredients, occurs m 
A1 k. IT, 14 ^ (w. ’29-33). It uses the expression karmu- 
kittarti or ‘more efficacious’ for kdrmukdk talo ’dhikam. 
A sixth recension, in Sardula Yikridita verses, like the ori- 
^oal, hut re-arranging the ingredients, is f oun 1T J ie 
H f • HI, 7 l9 «, where the pills are directed to he made of the 
7^tofaHeAdWn,i.e., a karsha. In all these recen- 

l!?j ^ le ^ orm ^la consists of nineteen ingredients , u , 
22* * occurs in several variants, of more or less than 

^gredients. Thus, there is in Ch., VI, 5 489 (w. Co,66) 
^ «■* (w. 26,27), AH., IV, 14 393 (vv. 9, 10), a 

shorter variant, consisting of seventeen ingredients, and also 
called the Hingvadi powder. In another recension this 
shorter variant is given in BhP., II, 2 152 . On the other 
hand, HS,, III, 7 192 gives a longer variant, which is called 
the Vrihad-hingu, or ‘ great Hingu ’ powder, and which 
contains twenty- eight ingredients. 

23 See Part I, note 55. See also S., I, 38 143 (in Butt’s Trans- 
lation, p. 171, No. 29) and BhP., I, 1 iro . 

24 In the very similar formula helow, verses 80-81, we 
have yavdm and krishndgandha apparently as equivalents 
of ajmidd and ajagandhd . On the identity of the latter 
there is much uncertainty. See Phar. Ind. II, 116, 117, 
Mat. Med., p. 172, Med. Diet.; also Chakradatta’s commentary 
(ed. p. 441) and Gangadhar s commentary (p, 154) on Oharaka, 
as well as Sivadasa’s commentary on Chak radatta. The 
latter identifies ajamodd and ajagandhd, with the wild and 

cultivated varieties respectively of yam am. 

25 In the same formula, verses 80-84, we have kustumburu 

instead of dhdnya, which settles the identity of the latter 

with coriander. See ante, note 8. 

26 ^ [ three expressions lavane due, lavana-trayam and 

pancha-lavanam are used in different recensions or variants 
of this formula. The first of these terms means the Vida 
and the Sonchal (saunar chalet) salts, see helow, verse 80, also 
Ch VI, 5 (v. 65) ; the second, those two with the addi- 
tion of rock-salt (saindhava) ; the third these three, together 
„itb sea-salt (fimOra) and sambar-salt rSmaka) -, see 
,«• + Marl mo-e 84. Opinions, however, differ, feivadisa, m 
Ss commentary on our formula in Chat radatta, identifies the 
tn-o salts with sonchal and rock-salt; so also Gangadhar 
* v rwnmentary on Char&ka (v. 65 ) ; also the Med. Diet. 

£5333 in M m. ™» «y* - 1 »•*- 

aa i! seem to he intended as the two salts. 

VZatvaoa appears to be a synonym of nu-atyaya, which 
' A InJirx v 927, in the sense of unfailing in its eficcts. 

Ton the process of bh&mnd. or 


maceration, ’ see Mat. 

, ' P d B r sowing them in some expressed juice or decoction 

during the “S’, d twe ° ty .four hours, but generally 

« a ii and Wise, p. 130. It consists in reducing drugs 
Med., P- ‘ . ,, .„ „ i u ice or decoction 


• 11 .““ouoeio "seTCn^tLes and sometimes with a 

repeated &om pre3en t case the commcntaiy m 

the ch ^ ( - geveil consecutive diys. See note U, 

* seven time»p u y ^ 




J It 


At\ j 

powder lor Medicating Liquoi 

. 52 

/ 6 7 70 .) Take two karaha* (i-e., one each) of the seeds of Kutaja (/h,i arr/i 

V T ‘till 1 A / I I 

antidnsen ter tea) and long pepper, one and a half pala of Madhurasfi, (Sans/. 
one pala® of P&tM ( Stephania hernmdifolia) , two pala of ginger, ( 68 ) 

•salt and the alkali ine ashes of barley straw, 

<’.n a 

vnera zeyh nica) 
one karsha each 

Third Leaf: Reverse 

and half a karsha of 

* S 

powder the whole finely. (69) Of this one may drink a marjSra-pada 9 with clarified butter 
or rice-gruel, or, if one is accustomed to spirituous liquor, he may stiffen 5 * it with a liquor 
and then drink it. (70) This is a remedy against indigestion, spleen, morbid secretion of 
urine, morbid pallor 7 , fistula in ano, and piles, if taken in the form of a medicated liquor . 54 

(XXV) The ^ardOla Powder, 

in 4i slftka. 

(71 — 75 a.) Take one part of asafoetida and two parts of Vacha (Acorus Calamus), 
add three parts of vida-salt, four parts of ginger, ( 72 ) five parts of lovage, six parts of 
•chebulic myrobalan, and seven parts of plumbago-root, and make the whole into fine 
powder. (73) When finely powdered, it may be taken with clear spirits of rice, or with 
some other intoxicating liquor, or simply with warm water. (74) This powder cures 
abdominal tumours, promotes the appetite, relieves piles, severe abdominal pains, cough 
asthma, and costiveness, (75) It is a most excellent powder, composed by Atreya and 
known by the name of Sardula (or 4 plumbago-root ’). 

(XXVI) The MAtultjnga Pills of the Asvins . 56 

(755— 77a.) Take one pala 9 of sonchal-salt, twice as much of Indian sorrel, (76) 
four times as much of cumin, and eight times as much of black pepper. These make 

62 This formula is called a Churndriskta, which means 
4 an arishta made with a powder.* Arishta is medicated 
spirituous liquor, prepared from honey and treacle with the 
addition of medicinal drugs, the whole being steeped in w ater 
and allowed to ferment. There are, however, two Kinds of 
medicated liquor, arishta and dsava (see below, v. 493). 
The liquor is called arishta when unboiled drugs are used in 
the preparation of it, and asava, when a decoction of the 
drugs is used. See Sa., II, 10, v. 2, BhV., II, 26 35 and 
29 37 ; also Mat Med., p. 13. See also Part I, note 39. For 

another formula of a Churnarishta see below, w, 104-107. 

* § * 

— I cannot trace any formula identical with ours any- 

63 Alodana is explained in Med. Diet, to mean mixing 
(miSrana', or stiffening, fortifying [uttejana). In the latter 
sense, dlddya is used here. It means, however, also to 
thicken by stirring ( di oshama) ; so below in v. 304, and in 
All., VI, 39, v. 170. 

u "Verse 70 h is short by one instant ; probably rea 

prakritically, arisaihsi for dir$dmsi, — Braydgenti is einphal 

bj the regular, or habitual use’q so also in v. 275 j ai 
similarly prayogdt in v. 462. 

• _ Sardula is a synonym of CJUtraka , the largest in- 

gredienfc ; hence the name of the powder. Another synonym 
o Chit/ aka is Ag/u/nukka , and under this name the same 

formula is given in SY,, VI, 27-32 w, V„ V 18? (w. 56-60) 
Chd,, VI, 17 J54 and Mat. Med., p. 181. In these works, 
however, eight parts of Kushtha (Saussurea Lappa) are added 
as an eight! i ingredient ; nor is the composition ascribed in 
them to Atreya. But that the formula is really the same 
is shown by the name Agnimakha , which proves that it 
originally ended with Chitraka, and that the addition of 

is of a later date. Probably our M anuscript gives 
the composition as originally made by Atreya ; and the name 
of the author was dropped in the later works which added 
Kushtha. In a third recension the formula is found in 
AH., i V, 14 3i5 (v. 36). Here, however, Chitraka is replaced 
by Vat yd (i.e , Bald or Sida cordifolia) ; and accordingly the 
name Sardula is differently explained to mean either a sirnha, 
or * lion * (because the powder is strong like a lion), or as 
the Sardula vikridita metre (because the formula is composed 
in t hat measure). This, however, is obviously a mere shift. 

5fj The name means ‘ Citron-pills composed by the Asvins * 
(see below, note 126). This formula is given in the Chd„ 
XXIII, II 331 , but in a shorter recension, running thus: 
“Take sonchal, tamarind, cumin, and black pepper in suc- 
cessively doubled quantities, powder them and make them 
up with citron juice into pills that cure abdominal pains due 
to disordered air.” Tamarind is substituted here for radian 
sorrel, and the reference to digestion is omitted. 

'Mb ^ 



t ho iuioe of citrons, (IT a) Thaw „4ii i, n t 

v \lls*w *5 . 1 47 y will keep the digestion m good coxiditioiL 

Jiito l’ 11 .Nominal pains due to deranged air. b ^ 

# 1CUr 

(XXVII) The Sour Matultjnga Pills. 10 

/yg and 79*) Take the j nice of citrons and £ukta 57 , 1 lie three acrids 23 , Indian sorrel, 
ga lt, lovage. rock-salt , and sonchal-salt, and make the whole into pills. (79) 
be drunk to relieve piles and to cure severe pains in the heart ai 

nil tsG m®v t _ ' vj - v lu. uno uioaav and the 

, , n | tacks of costiveness, diarrhoea, loss of appet ite, and abdominal tumours caused 

gjuGj 1 ijsl THw ^ &s§fc % « 

derwW ed m ' 

(XXVIII) Other Maxulunga Pills of the Asvins, 59 

in 5 £16ka. 

(80—84.1 Take plumbago- root, the three acrids 23 , Pushkara 13 , asafeetida, Indian 
1 yi da- salt and A3 vagai Ldha ( TPithania somnifera) , also coriander- seeds, Vacha 
loom 8 Gctl aniit$)> pomegranate, sonchal- salt, and fresh carbonate of potash, (81) Add 
1; this an equal quantity by weight of fresh ovage, black cumin, saffron, Amaraja 

• Acacia Catechu ), and cumin-seeds. After being well-dried in the glare of the 

. v** - - ' ^ A 

sue make the whole of the ingredients' 10 into powder, and add to it an equal quantity ox 
tho juice of citrons in a diluted state. (82) Having been thus steeped in the juice, rub 
it into a paste, and make it up into pills of the weight of a badara. 9 One of these 
tlu> patient should take the first thing in the morning with some medicated liquor, 
or with honey, or liquor of honey, or Barbara 01 , or he may take it with spirits of rice, or 

Fourth Leaf : Obverse. 

With curds, or with whey. (83) Cough, asthma, long-standing morbid pallor 7 severe 
snleen, abdominal pains, severe costiveness, hiccough, heart-diseases, apathy, salivation, 
acute diarrhoea, painful abdominal tumours, (84) cholera, tympanitis, weak digestion, 
dysentery, inflammation of the anns, and piles : all these diseases are relieved by these 

* it n _ . ^ ^ ^ ^ n-n+ VAVHAflv FoV SVT1C0T)C * li ^CLmilllS - 

tered with hot water. 

(XXIX) The Gtjljia. Powder of the Asm ns. 


(85 and 86.) Me one dha,a,a* eaoi of MtM (SUphmia he,™,di. folU), seeds of 

w On Suita see Part I, note 27. For a different recipe 
sccBhP., I, 2 w and §a., II, 11 173 (w. 1b, 8a), quoted m ' 

larger Petersburg Dictionary, under Sukta* 

68 Lavan-6ttam-dkhya, lit. ‘that which is known as the 
test salt.’ Lamn-ottama, ‘ best salt/ is a name for rock-salt, 
commonly called saindhava ; see the commentary to Chd., 

b 29 w and AH., IV, 8 368 (v. 101). 

1 have not been able to trace this formula, as it stands 
^ elsewhere ; hut it is practically the same as the formula 
^ verges 29-31. It appears in other works to he broken up 
mto Went] distinct formulas, the chief of which is found 
^ertbc name of Tumlurddya-chArna, or ‘ the p(?wder made 
0 himburu and other drugs/ Tumburu being eithei the same 
• 0r similar to, A ustumburu. See V., XXVI 4 ^ 

» ako vv. 85 and 79, 80, 100, and v. 14), AH., 1^ , -1 
^■35-37 (l ) i Si, ii, 6 119 92*93), quoted mMat. Med., 

h °' 1, also Ch., VI. 9 641 (v. 107 IT.). 

60 The construction in V* 81 b, is rather awkward ; but 
samahit-dmsa, lit., having its parts put together, refers to the 

whole of the preceding ingredients. . 

Sdrhara is a kind of liquor made from a watery mfu- 
• nT1 of Woodfordia iloribunda {dhdtaU) and sugar, see 

h 5 Jomm. to v. 73), and Med. Diet., s. v. Sahara- 

Tamos is unconsciousness, or loss ;f consciousness, and 
• ± %YS mentioned as the first and main symptom of 
- T7 qvneono or swoon, and of sarmyam or catalepsis ; 

al30 as occurring inserere «,cs of ^ajeWow^. 4^4, 

941, an 'Vm V a vi 1 46 s23 (v. 4). It is also called tamaha 

» h., n! . e. I* b» th. -• 

Cil ' 5 J ’ f ur v erse and the mention of tamah are awk 



[Chap. \ t 

Kalinga (Molar rhena anil dy sent erica), Mustaka (Qyperus rotmidus % (2?i cror 

rhiza Knrroa), and AtivisM (Aconiium heierophyllum), add tarmeric equal to four 
dharana 03 and drink this powder with the urine of a cow. (80) It removes from the body 
the tiiirty-six kinds of skin- diseases, and destroys the seven grounds of rapid consump 
tion 64 ; it also cures abdominal tumours, if taken ! ! or one month, removing them all if 
the patient diets himself especially on clari lied butter and meat. 

(XXX) The MAoadha Powder. 


(87—95.) Take equal parts of long pepper, vida-salt, and the carbonates of poo. }) 
and soda, also of ginger, black pepper, and rock-salt, (88) also of lovage, Danti ( Balio- 
spermum montamm), turpeth-root, Vatsaka ( Molarrhena antidy sent erica , sonchal-salt, 
cumin-seeds, and the three myrobalans, (89) and make them all into fine powder. This 
will make a most excellent preparation of powder i f well macerated in lie urine of a 
cow. (90) Of this a dose of one vidala-pada 9 should be given with warm water to a 
patient, after he has taken some greasy food and thereby greased his bowels. (91) If, 
having well digested it, he becomes thirsty, he may be allowed to drink a lixivium of 
Ghiitagandha ( Prosopis spicigera ) 65 with the juice of pomegranates ; (92) then he will 
be rendered quite comfortable ; and if, on this being digested, he should become desirous 
of food, (98) he may partake of a mild stimulative, consisting of red rice well-boiled 
toge fcher with the broth of game distinctly seasoned with vinegar and salt. (94) In the 
case of cholera, piles and other diseases, of difficult digestion or indigestion, also of morbid 
pallor 7 , (95) abdominal tumours due to disordered air, and chronic diarrhoea, if this pre- 
scription is made use of, the patient will obtain relief. 

(XXXI) The Haridka Powder of the Alvins. 10 

(96—101.) Take equal parts of the two Haridra 66 , black pepper, lotus, Kushtha 
(Saussurea Lappa), long pepper, root of the cotton plant, Mams! ( Nardostachys 
Jatamansi ), and carbonate of soda, (97) and rub these eight ingredients into a paste on 

65 CKaturtha in chat urtha-dkar ana probably stands foi 
chaturguna, just as ashtama for ashia-quna in v. 76. The 
reading should have heen chaturtham dharanam , hut this 
would not have suited the metre. See note 9. 

64 This is a puzzling passage. The text is imperfectly pre- 
served, hut the reading of the number 36 {shattrimSat) is 
practically cer tain. The only class of diseases of which I can 
find thirty- six enumerated, are the kslwdna-noga or ‘ minor 
diseases/ Of these AH., VI, 31 633 (v. 335) enumerates 
thirty-six, all of which may he roughly described as ‘ skin- 
diseases/ Charaka does not treat of them as a class at all, 
while S., II, 13 - se (§ 1) enumerates forty- four, and the Kid., 
p. 192, has forty-three, including some which are not skin- 
diseases. Another possible explanation, however, is suggested! 
by Prof. Jolly, in vol. LIII, p. 380 of the Journal ASB. 
The usual number assigned to the skin-diseases {kushtha) is 
7 gi-eat (rnahd) and II minor (ksJmdra) ; see k, II, 
5 fcl. 2}, Oh., II, 5 220 (cl. 3), IN, XLIX, 1 - S2 . The same 

*TTo 18 als0 a3st " ned t0 certain diseases of the penis, 
called Suka; see S., II, 14 241 (cl. 1), XLYIII, 1 

For this reason, as the commentator Srikanthadatta explains, 
the Suka and kushtha diseases are treated by Madhava in 

two consecutive chapters MN., XL VIII and XLIX, and 
SY„ L. and LI, It may be that for a similar reason, the 
two sets of diseases, amounting to 36, are classed together in 
our Manuscript. The mahdkshaya I take to be the same as 
what is usually called raja-yahshma or ‘ phthisis ' [Nid., 
1 ’• described as * arising from the waste of the 

seven elements* {dhatu-kshaya-janita, Nid., p. 62). These 
seven ‘ elements ’ or dhdtu (see ante, p. 16, note 34) are here 
apparently referred to hy the term sthdna or * ground/ 

(,6r ihis is conjectural. The reading of the text is perfectly 
cleai ; but I cannot find the word avaksh&ri in any dictionary 
or medical work ; nor does it seem to be known to modem 
ICavirajas. There may be an error in the text ; and yava- 
hshuj a carbonate of potash * or avi-kshtna * ewe’s milk* sug- 
gests itself. The Kaviraj whom I consulted suggested eg a* 
k shir a or * goat s milk * But the pronoun tasydih, in the 
sequel, seems to show that only one thing, and that of the 
feminine gender, is intended. Hence I prefer to take ghrita * 
getn dk am- a vak shdrim to mean one thing only, and avakshdri 
to mean a ‘lixivium/ or a solution of alkaline salts from the 
wood-asaes of Prosopis spicigera. 

66 See Part I, note 80, 

« BOW “ ““Oscmjt, r4ET n 

* iclone- ^ ^ eJtl the paste iuto trill 

(*) 0no piU made of this P°wder maVT 1 - * & kM4,Ul? and «* 

• ua y Kiv..„ with warm **2; 


them in tlie 

■ Powr< * ieq/ 1 ; R everse 

*• diff° n ’ nt kmdS ° f dl * eases ^icli may be Clwed , Now, hear 

^hawses, strangury. angina, costiveness abdominal / l j indigestion, retention of 

r5£- * ^ doc) « rritx^ *■** * - 

nee, eioilenuTT ii. j P° is011 " “* 

T ‘"'’ r 5 poison. Kivyt) n alSQ our _ " " 7 — — *» t,ul1 

2 . -orpian's sting, and relieves flatulence eniW i f f* lm P aired poison" and 

»"■> ““P'« w»». In ^ W -T” «T •« 

■' r00ts "’ * ma y be used M a draught or as anXtmenl P ° 1S ° n ’ 


(XXXII) The Gatjdika Pills. 10 

(103 and 103.) Take zedoary, Vacha {Acorns Calamus), Tamalaki (Phyttanthns 
long peppei , ginger, and treacle, fry the whole with clarified butter, and 
p it iuto pills. (10 o) IV ith this may he cured spasms in the chest, catarrh. pains 
sides, heart and abdomen, and dry cough, even when they are of an aggravated 

daara et er. 

(XXXIII) Another Powder for Medicating Liquor. 68 

.107.1 Take two hundred (pala 9 of) black pep tier, and one hundred vp&la) 
W and Iona pepper, also one pala each of sugar and good dry ginger, and one karsha* 
LTof (.«»)" tomLd, pomegranate and ** japbe. To 

cinnamon half a kaieha of oumin, (1 OS) one karsha of Indnm sorrel, half a Uri»efrftM 

wriaader. and one karsha of These together make . mmt excellent 

HOT'. This is a radical cure for piles ; it also completely st 0i > 

V L ' ,.i_n 7 r>™-.rvVi QTifl fljathma. 

r medicating liquor. i- - - ‘“hid oallod cough, and asthma, 

runic diarrhoea, and relieves heart-disease, P 

5 Mi • whether animal or non-animal.’ On poisons see 

VI. 85 V.,1XX*“ (tv. 8, 47, 5ti), S., V, 2 “ (vv- 

. SMI, 38), V, 3 «* (tt. 1 ff ), AH., VI, 3o (vv. ; 
3:, 48, 49). They are cimled into akntrirM,^ « n f ’ 

ifitri ms or ‘arti tidal* (v. 239). The latter is a so ® r _ 

1 (r. 2501. A nr thins » hen it has become S P 01 e J„ * 
(her causes, andhence has turned poisonous, is called 
«- The Bhava Prakhsa alone differs by maaing both g 

riV-t* sub-divisions of kritrt rna pels id. . , 

9 art? subdiv ded into j a# get mu ot \ 

nmi or stMra or ‘ non-animal ’ (vegetabean ^ 

higama poisons are also called damsh P.™' with 

formulas quoted from that -ork (eg., the ^ 7 ^* 
in Ch., VI, 6 S “ 9 (tr. 121 - 129 '. quoted re O. Alb. ^ J 

T ' 1 2 j wL. ^II 4 * to be an umrholeMme mature made 

0 f t’ e dirty eieretio ( m d SE d by rourtiore to 

to ^ or arert disgrace J 

kings, m inyu 

see also note 78 . CKum&rishU s«» ^ 67 ; 70 ' 

cs , or another form of the fonmila, given 

^vrrmk is only a slight vanan 14 - 17 )* 

poisons are also caneu • , , -a 

rZn^ri-ja. i e , « produced in 

®-fenga’ • and the stharira are also called f» ^ 

0t >-e. ‘produced !. sources, 

*W ;nmes, because in the enumeration o the 

^ison-hmgs of animals and the roots 0 P q n<y ,\dhars 
mentioned in their respective classes (see ® h { . 

««» Ch.. VI. 23, w. S,9‘»). . 14 rnhlkaand to I 

represonktive mines are peculiar to Chara 

“ S“»<« " 

n» as mti* "» * 

of ravdm ; tto > m 

beinsc the reduetum of 


**- ihe Shi#^^ t * this formula 
times its qn*i_ ^ ser ud ordt* of the ^ 

^ith ^ re -ensiou of it in ’’ r £ omu U. se» 0&k 

most resemhlestn 0 ^^^ ^ 3ioBS ot tins form 

On this ana 
note 8. 

0 f Yavdrn ; WfTV n * ai {Terence being the 

01 1 .n most important uiittr muger to four 

dients, the ^ ttml lhe ' o* ^ 4 ^ 

sugar to one ^omt ^ ^ ^ X £> ^ ^ ^ 

times its 9 ,, ser iul older ot ■ 9 Vtv m ttt, WdK- 




(Ill) A Hurd II A I, A Oil,'*' 1 

in 7 rilflkft. 

(880—280.) Lot a learn*! physician tako one humln-d w. Il-mea-sim-d ( 1>u]il , f , 
roots el BaIH (A///// cordtfolia) , and hoi I fhom in one <lr6n&° of water, till / wholp ^ 
redooed toom- fourth of the original quantity. (281) Now add tm more jkJu ./low! 
(6-ida cord folia), made up with milk into a panto, also two ftdhaka’ of oil made fro 1 
decorticated scsamuni, (282) and boil the whole with lour times the latter 

(i.e., eight fidhaka) of milk over a gentle firo. vu» unmoor mo ou snoum Do i )oi uj 
ten times. (283) This Balk oil is an approved remedy for numerous dia™^ i t ^ 
recommended to be used in the form of a draught or a liniment or an ingredient of ondt 

Jb .1 ~ _ . I Tl M ifl JF A a __ 


is 4 » »ji i uuy, 

txioso accompanied with hemorrhages, also in diseases of the womb of women 147 or of the 
semen of men. (285) It cures dryness of the palate, morbid thirst, morbid heat, severe 

pains in the side, unhealthy menses, drying up and wasting of the body, madness, and 


Tenth Leaf : Obverse . 

(286) It lengthens life, promotes strength, and relieves cough and asthma ; in 
fact, this oil may be administered as a general remedv for all diseases. 

(IV) The Amrita Oil, 148 

in 25 SI oka and 1 pada. 

(287—312'/.) The two truth-speaking ASvins, the divine physicians, honoured by 
the Ilevas, have declared the following excellent oil which promotes plumpness, (288) 
relieves all diseases, is fit for a. king, and is as good as ambrosia. It is known by the 
name of Amrita (or ‘ambrosia’) and is an oil able to make men strong. (289) At the 
time of P ushya 148 , after having said prayers 1 * 0 , performed purificatory rites, and asked 
the Brahman’s blessing in a few words, take out liquorice-roots grown in a favourable 
place. (290) Of the fresh juice of hose roots let a clever physician take four patra 9 , 
and add four pala 8 each of the following drugs: Prapaundarlka 1 * 1 , Amrita (Tinospora 
cor difolia), knots ol the root-stalk of the lotus, ^atavari {Asparagus racemosus), (2‘dl) 
Sringataka (Trap a Uspmosa), embuc myrobalan, (Jdumbara (Ficus glomerate), 
Kaieruka (Scirpus Kysoor), the bark of each of the (five) trees with a milky sap 153 , 
(292) rooiis of Kuh (Foa cynosuroides) , Kasa (Saccharum spontaneum), and Iks: 

( Saccharum officinarum), also of Sara (Saccharum Sara ) and Virana, ( AnA*™™™ 

w ‘ On the object and method of decortication, or cleansing 
of sesamum, gee Phar. ind., vol. Ill, p. 29, in the Jury 
Reports of the Madras Exhibition, 

147 The vywpad or * afflictions * of the or ‘womb* 
are said to he twenty. See Kid., p, 241, V., LXVIII 858 
fv. 01); Wise, p. 380. 

m I have not been able to trace this formula elsewhere. 
It is a phenomenally long one, consisting of no less than 
eighty-three ingredients, actually named forty in the 

first and forty-three in the second part i, besides others not 
named, hut permitted. A few, indeed, are repeated in the 
second part. 

Pushy a is one of the twenty-seven lunar asterisms, 
the sixth according to the older reckoning. It is one of the 
auspicious times for undertaking medical treatment. See, 
c.y., AIL, Y I, 39 6GG (v. 54). Ibidem, II, 1 183 (w. 386-3ibf) 
a ceremony to insure the conception of a male child 
[pumsavana) is directed to he performed in Pushya time. 
See also ibidem, YI, 35 (comm, to v. 27). 

For an example of such a prayer, see Dx\ Wise, p. 134. 

161 See Part I, note 54. 

1& - See ! ’art I, note 69. 

i}( nv iv a 

(&'■ lll -l '"WMU MANUso.,, 

1-AiL-r it 

nlHO **** ^ On nil, A ,p , 

£ork«)"*' «* ° r th ;, lu,UH - («») V iwlnrt '(ZiT\ ’"'‘'"'osum), of 

V. ' '“T” A, ? , " , uslmk«' %*!'** \ Art 

^^ricum), ikiU*, mioanut, Priyan-ni ij! ''"'" ")< Ni 


Idta f/ r~ ^"rtgtoiU'K 


0*«<« liorljvrahilL v mMU <*•»«■* 

- — ^enteric, ,) mini,,* i » ^ Pa WU {Trick 

A, jma), AsvaKarija (Sine* t‘ ' af * N ’ rtlk ,,f ‘h* IoUbl **&. 

■™‘. m *> „u,„ J “,1! ■•'" • ’• «nw» m**. 

^ 1 «- !,» 3* 1 - • 

Ag whole is reduced to 



intZ f? T* " r ^' liu « 

one-eightli of the ori<,i m i “° 9f ‘ ol watcr - (296) and W L< 

0 f fine powder of one pala each of the follow ,K)il in il P«t<* mad. 

»«_-v,oia ( S Ida spino8a) , JhA {Dendrobi * 

/9Q7\ Xfi+*v ( 

ori 9<ml quantity, boil 

drugs cordifolia), 

Ky*oor), (297) Nata (Tabemmmontana corma I"*'’ ""S* Ka ^ ruka 
corniedata), small cardamoms and cinnamon-bark’ SfSf (2V *°" WI ° 

jWtaka (ifawfe W«K.). and blue loCw e f ' Ma ‘". 

^ and c ^aves, Vidfiri (Ipomoea digitate), £ S hirakak61i% Vlr& (I>Vam 

logopodioides ) , aud Sanya {Ichuocarpus fv ‘ # 

f»o*M$) , Priy ; - 1 1 ( Aglaia Roxburgliiana ) , 

jfadhuka {Bama latifolia), and blue lotus (298), the colour ’ produdn 

vood, and ciMamon- eaves Vidfiri KsMrakak61r 

lagopodioides) , and Sanva {Ichnocarpus frutescens), (299) gatavail i „ Asparagut race - 
mom), Pnyangu {Jfflata Roxburgh iam), Gudfichi ( Tinospora cordifolia), filaments 
of the lotus, Mmajjaka (Andropogon laniger), red and white sandal, and fruits of 
Rajadana {MiwiVBops hexandrd)^ (300) pearl, coral, conch- shell, moon-stone, sapphire, 
ciystal, silver, gold, and other gems and pearls, (301) liquorice, madder, and Axhsumati 
( Desmodium gdugeticwii). Boil the whole slowly over a gentle fire (302) with tour 
p&tra 9 of (sweet) oil and eight times as much of milk, adding also vinegar of rice 1 * 6 one- 

llQili £IS much as 1 lie )T1 ilk * T^lno m lmnp cli mi 1 rl 1 \o rnnno f t u \ a 1 n i w 1 1 w>fl 1 1 v * 

llliiOo Cv!5 1 1 1 llvli U1 UJllAj ciloO VlllLgclI U1 XlvL vllv" 

(303) This boiling should be repeated a hundred or even a 
thousand times ; ana wnen it is thoroughly done, it may be known by this sign, (304) 
that on the arrival of the proper time the oil stiffens by the mere exposure to the mys 
of the sun. 167 After asking Br&h man’s blessing, performing purificatory rites and saving 
prayers, (305) this Amrita (or f ambrosial ’) oil, highly esteemed by the Ddvas, may be 
administered to the patient, in the form of an injection per anum or per urethram, 

ar as a draught, or an errhine, or a liniment. 

— . * 1 - ^ce of any plant (sap) or of flesh (broth), or generally a y 

VMi bat so mi. it i. erthjr 

Illicitly by the addition of a specific word (as in '***«•<«»- 
Idee of sugar-cane, or juice of fi«h). « 

; mtilieit I t by the content (see below, footnote 38o) , 
implicitly oj ^ mmM All these meanings are 

examples, ^ f in our f ormu i», ram u dearly a 

out of the question,io ^ ^ ^ ^ well u myrrh, 

proper name of ad ^ ^ ^ where mercury 

it must be mem ) ^ ^ ^ fa$a „ » word for mercury, 

an^tliercforo the use of mercury “ “ k° added 

I» - -* “ <5 •— 

that mercury “ ^ gue h as the Ashttngn H l^ a 5' a , 

This work has it twice, has it as t“tara m V, 

5* ” v i “ ll “A * ‘ 

n . ID: and as /><««« JUtum. 

m T ie five drugs from KuSa to Virana are known as the 
trim-paMha-mula, or ‘ set of roots of five grasses. Sm 
M at. Med., p. 266 ; also S„ 1, 38 >« (v. 68), Cha., XXXII, - 
* Nvlikd is the same as Ntfa, which is sin M men- 
honed, as a root, in Part I, p. 6, verse 72, together «U> jr 
- The original text hae ««*. The <»ntrf shows tlij 

this word is here used as a technical term, »• <*•> M J . , ;t 

— * . rum tag. o. 

rommonly serve* as a proper name is 7 (rasam) 

DhX., VI, 8, EN„ XIII, 105. As * see 

it is also said to he a PwP er ^® e ] wras<m , though 
OS, in, 25 ; but here ItN., VI, U 7, has »u ^ ^ 

in its Parifiishta (Appendix), XXIII, , ’ ■ J ’ , ijje ( rasa A) 
As a name of mercury, the word is bo 0 ui* formula the 
and neater (rasam) ; see KN., thid* . 8 ^ .y e to determine 
^ord is used in the accusative case, it is 1 P ^ ^oubt that it is 
ha gender; hut there can probably be ■ . little used by the 
®ot the word for myrrh; for that lS ^ Greeks; 
Indians, and was introduced into India throu» ^.jjch i s 
iU proper name is hold (both masc. a g pin4 a > 

^ Greek fclos, lump, as shown by ** J, ^ in &a 
; see Phar. Ind., Ill, p. 205. ^ course, neither 

41 ptopfjr name of taste, and of chyle ; u . ah a comi^on 
(J I these two lh applicable i n ottr f or33a n 0 denoting the 

the word rasa is of frequent occurr 

V 12 4, mentions it - ricc ; see tut h “ 

tosbeen conjectarully r«to ^ 
in AH., f a certain kind o 

SS£5 ."SKSWi *7 - “ 

5,*. rs - w — '"■* 



t Chap, in 

Tenth Leaf : Reverse. 

- , . . . . (306) It serves the purpose* r 

rclioving diseases and imparting strength to the organs of souse. For those who 

from morbid heat and thirst it makes an excellent and beneficial liniment (W) It 

promotes the growth of hair in the old and that of the body in the young ; ’it produces 

loveliness and blessedness 168 in women ; and also ensures numerous offspring, (308) for 

by the use of this ambrosial oil, women are predisposed to conception. It cures the 

eighty nervous diseases 141 , also those due to derangement of the blood or the bile (309) 

or the phlegm or all the humours concurrently 160 . By its use as an errhine or a lini- 
ment the eyes become as sharp as those of an eagle. 

avorts ; ; ' • Le > ancl promotes prosperity. By the use of this oil the Maharshi 

Chyavana 1 19 regained (311) his youth, and was delivered from decrepitude and disease \ 
and the blessed Maharshi Markanddya 160 , who was desirous of a long life, (312a) obtained 
his desire by the regular use of this oil. 

(310) It keeps off calamities, 

(V) A MOnAKA Oil, 161 

in 6 §l6ka and 1 pada. 

(3125 — '318a, 


milk and (sweet) oil. (31 4) Also there should be boiled with it l6i pastes of * Basna 
( Vanda Moxburghii ), Bala {Sid a cor difolia ), Gdkshuraka ( Tribulus terrestris) , rock- 
salt, Sigruka {Moriaga pterygosperma), Vacha {Acorns Calamus ), plumbago root, ginuvj*, 
long pepper, Gajapipdali ( Scindapsus officinalis), (315) Bhallataka ( Semecarpus 
Anacardium), and PrativisM (Aconitum heterophyllum) . This Mulaka (or ‘radish 1 ) 
oil is much recommended as beneficial to men (316) in paraplegia, ib3 lumbago, sciatica, 
and apoplectic convulsions. Barren women also are by it predisposed to conception. 
It also averts calamities, (317) and removes obstruction and relaxation in the case of 
scrotal enlargement 143 or displacement of the bladder and of the joints respectively. 

All these diseases are driven off by drinking the radish-oil, (318a) just as a furious 
elephant, by a skilfully applied goad. 


168 SaubMgya is blessedness arising from being a su- 
bhagd, a woman blessed with children, and therefore beloved 
by her husband ; see note 3 on p. 77. 

389 Tins passage would seem to imply the doctrine of a tetrad 
of humours ; for nervous diseases are those due to vitiated 
air. On this subject, see Part I, note 76. 

30,1 Ho is f ie reputed author of the Markandeya Purana, 
and was remarkable for his great age, whence he was called 
JHrg k • dyus or ‘ the long-lived/ 

361 This formula is found in a different recension, re-ar- 
ranging the ingredients, in V„ XXII m (vv. 525-528). 
In a third, but more enlarged recension, it occurs in Oh., VI, 
28 ? (w. f82»164) and Chd.,XXII, 69 a8a . In this recension 
there are eight drugs in addition to the twelve given in 
our recension and in that of Vangasena. 

The (x.Mti-uotioi 1 in verses 314 und 315 is rather 
aw wain. The causal pdchaydt has a double accusative, the 

drugs r&snd, etc., as well as the before-mentioned decoction ; 
also it has the instr. garb ft ena anena, which refers to the 
drugs rdsnd , etc. More literally the passage may be translated 

thus : ‘ (then taking) Rdsnd, Bald , etc , with their paste let 
it be boiled.* 

103 On paraplegia see Hid,, p. 107. It appears to be the 
same as the disease called pangu in Wise, p. 254, Ho. 19. 

364 Stamb liana or ‘ obstruction * refers to scrotal enlarge- 
ment and displacement of the bladder, and sramsana or 
‘relaxation/ to the joints; compare verse 33*5 — Kvndala is 
one of the thirteen forms of mutra-cfhdta or ‘retention of 
urine/ in which stamhhana or ‘painful obstruction in the 
passage of urine * is one of the symptoms. See its description 
in Ch., V ill, 9 9(18 (v. 49), and Wise, p. 366. AH., Ill, 9 ^ 
(vv. 20-23a) and Nid., p. 125, enumerate oniy twelve forms, 
of one of which hu dula is a sub-variety. 



[Chap, Xxl* 

in a plain fashion without fat, and should consist of hoilod split-pulse and rice.”' it • 
a medicine recommended to barren women who desire to give birth to a son. 18 


(VIII) The Sahachara Oil.” 1 

-336.) Take one hundred (pala») of Sahachara (. Barleria cristata ) wi h their 
roots, leaves and twigs, mince them finely, and boil them in four drfina 0 of water, ( 330 ) tin 
the whole is reduced to one drona. Then strain the decoction, and boi I it again slowly 
with a paste made of ten pala of the roots o Sa iachara ( Barleria cristata) in one 
fi.dhaka° of (sweet) oil. (331) Strain it again, and while it is stil 1 fairly warm, throw i n 
eighteen pala of sugar. -After stirring this well, pui it by for use. (332 It is highly 
recommended to be used in the form of an enema 113 or a draught or a liniment or an 
errhine. Paralysis of a single limit 126 , or of a whole side of the body, cramps of the 
jaw or of the head, (333) carnal paralysis, tic convulsive, insanity, palsy of the whole 
body, fever, sciatica, abdominal tumours due to deranged air, demoniacal possession 
(334) epilepsy, emprosthotonos, paraplegia, glossitis 172 , goitre, displacement of the It lad. 
der lc ‘, scrotal enlargements, contracture of the hands or the knees, (335) and loosening 
or trembling or drying up of the knuckles and joints : all these evils are relieved by this 
oil, which scatters them, just as the storm-wind scatters the clouds. (336) In case no 

sugatr & at hand, the oil may he boiled with milk. In order to subserve the destruction 
of a host of diseases, it has been ordained by the Self -existing God. 

(IX) The Madhttashtika Oil. 17 * 

(337 — 343.) Boil one prastha 9 of oil made from decorticated 1 46 sesamum seeds, with 
four times as much of milk and one pala 9 of liquorice. (338) Give it a gentle boiling > 
and, when ready, repeat the process of boiling again and again, until one hundred 1 pala 9 ) 
of liquorice have been boiled in. (339 Having thus given to it a hundred boilings, put 
it by for use. It is recommended as a draught and as a liniment, also for enemas 
and errhines. (340) Taken in one’s food it is as good as ambrosia for curing people 
suffering from phthisis. Taken as a draught, it relieves heart-diseases, morbid dryness of 
the palate, abdominal tumours due to bile, hysterical convulsions, (341) morbid thirst, 
insanity, erysipelas, asthma, cough, unhealthy menses, excess of vitiated air, pressure 
of it in all directions, pressure of it upwards, (342) jaundice, fever, and morbid pallor 7 , 
suppuration due to deranged phlegm, internal heat, boils, psoriasis, (343) and 

170 Supodana is the dish known in modern I ndia as did- 


171 According to Dr. Cordier, this formula is found in a 
nearly identical recension in the I JArita Samhita. In another 
recension which combines the two options ( sugar or milk) in 
the same formula, it occurs in Ch., VI, 28 (vr. 140, 141). A 
third recension is given in AS., IV, 23 130 (11. 8-13) and in 
AH., IY, 21 4:7 (vv. 69-72 a). Here the option of our formula 
is "broken up into two separate optional formulas. The oil 
may be prepared either with milk, but without any sugar ; or 
it may be prepared with sugar (without milk), but in that 
case, instead of the paste of Sahachara, pastes made of ten 
other specified drugs should be used. This recension, moreover, 
is expressly ascribed to the physician Bheda, in whose Samhita, 

according to Dr. Cordier (Rec. Dec., p. 7) it occurs in chap. 24, 
w. 39, 40, There is still a fourth recension in the Y., 
XXII 571 (v. 258-259), which is a compromise between those 
of Ch. and the AH. It combines the options of sugar 
and milk, but for the paste of Sahachara it substitutes pastes 
made of nineteen other specified drugs, nearly all of which, 
however, differ from those in AS. and AH. 

17 - On alasaha or aids a, glossitis, see Nicl., p. 208 ; also 
Med. Diet. It is to be disti nguished from alasaka , 

173 This formula is found, though in a much more concise 
recension, in V., IX (w. 132-133), under the name of 
Satapdka-taila or * Oil of one hundred boilings. 5 I have not 
been able to trace it elsewhere. 

11 . 



Cf AV 


Eleventh Leaf: Lever 


diseases, of the i i : ,:ls, there arc 
f ■gnjl, just as the dust is laid by the advent of the rai 


•> al l these are relieved by 

(X) An Asvagandha Oil . 174 

(3l4-350«.) Measure out one hundred pala 0 of roots of Hayagandha ( Withania 
and boil them m a vessel with four (adhaka) of water, till the whole is reduced 
jo one- fourth of the original quantity of the water. Jlaving strained the decoction. 

to * j v,u ^ wwi, xi a v mg strained tne 

, 34 , 5 ) stiffen it ivdh pastes made of one karsha* each of powder of the following 
liquorice, ginger, deodar, Satavan ( Asparagus racemosus ), madder, Xalada ( Xordostachys 

ns: drugs : 

liquouw, t5 x,, -n v 7 v w ' u i/'' 0 / vow rnu&wb j , iuctu.uei, i\ataua ^ i\ tw 

Jefaniansi) , Kushtha (Saussurea Lappa), the two Karan ja m , Varshabhu (JB 
diffusa), (346) leaf -stalk of the lotus, Satapushpa (. Peucedanum graveolens ), Sura-sa, 
( Oc Iwwn sanctum) , *ltasna (Vanda JRoxburghii ), Payasya ( Gynandropsis pentaphylla ), 
zedoarv, roots of Pushkara 12 , Stbira (Desm odium gangeticum ), *Dravantt ( Ipomoea 
r eiiiformis) , Payasya (Oacystelma esculentum). m (347) Now boil the whole over a gentle 
fire in one adhaka 9 of oil, and four times its quantity of milk. (348 > When it has 
finished boiling geni ly, put by the oil in a clean vessel. It may be administered in the 
form of a draught or a liniment or an enema, or used in the process of maceration . 177 
(3-19) People may use it who suffer from apathy, dumbness, lameness, stammering, 
paraplegia, or facial paralysis, from loss of memory, from festering splinters of bone in 
the side, from dislocation or comminuted fracture of the bones and joints , 1 ' 8 from stum- 

— ■« 4 « ^ * t il. f * JJtl _ - X, hi. — rt rt H'-'t rJ 1 \ Tf T A 1 A 1 1 flTT M 


from lock-jaw. 

(XI) Another Asvagandha Oil, 

in 15 ^16ka and 1 pada 


(351— 366«.) Cut in pieces half a tula 9 of roots of Asvagandha ( Withania somni- 
fm) and boil it in a dr6na° of water, till the whole is reduced to one-eighth of its original 

174 This and the following are merely varieties of the same 
formula. They contain pastes of twenty and .twenty-four 
■kugs respectively, of which, they have sixteen in common. 
Neither of them, however, I have been able to trace elsewhere, 
the nearest is an Asvagandha formula in V., XNII (V^. 

'.-53()), in which the general outline is the same, hut neai y 
^ the drugs differ. The quantity of water, directed in it o 
1® taken, is one drdna, which is equal to I our adhaka. 

175 Karamje, or ‘ the two Karonjaf txve the Karanj a 
(Pongamia glabra) and the Puti-karan) a (Caesalpinia Bon u 
celh, or ‘ The Bonduc nut’), the properties of which are said 

to resemble one another. See Mat. Med., p. 153. ^ 

176 1(tyctsy& occurs twice in this formula. It is a name o 
sev eral plants ; but such a repetition of the same term is 
* 0s t improbable, 'there is probably an error. The tex o 

Us Wiu u i a is much out of order. Payasya as we 
^on yms dugdhikd, kskiri, etc., are applied to a great var- 
e y of milky plants, and are descriptive rather thanpioper 
> es * See Phar. Ind., vol. IX, p. 457; also Dutt s lransla- 
l °H of the Susruta, pp. 75, 180, 195. ,, 

J^hdinna. or ‘maceration’ here probably refers to the 

to o£ eatable^ or preserves in oil* and correspon 

i-s term hhtjjana in other formulas. See ante, no e * 

W hl !“3 na or blia f a d6 ^ te lf or^/jobt 

ot lesion of a bone {asthi or kdnda) 01 a J 

(sandhi), whether caused hy an accident {agantu), or by a 
rheumatic, gouty, or tuberculous condition ( vita, or vata- 
vmihi). SeeS., HI, 15 ‘ 9 h where bhagna denotes not only 

a fracture but also a dislocation {sandhi-muhta, chyutd ), or 
a curvature {vahra) ; see Nid., p. 92, where astKMafiga* 
lesion of bones, is mentioned as one of the symptoms of vata- 
*Aihi ' Bhaana is said to be sometimes due to akshepana* 
of a wrench, causing distortion or deformation of limbs or 
int5 Hence S„ XII, 1 ! « tv. oOlf.l enumerate among the 
l&taivmi four kinds of Hkshepaka, distortion orconrmls.on 
. nce kshifta (v. 359) means distorted or convulsed, and 

„ ii, nn „ a distorted or deformed by rheumatism, gout, or 

do! is ’ Both terms occur- in this sense in the Atharva 
tuberculos or v&ti _ kTi t asl )a MisiajO, remedy 

^ L suffer from convulsions or Horn rhenmatrsm, 

^ (V- 358) are p.obaWy 

(v . 349) ana i kin d of Uagim lesion, which S„ 

m> 10 : f^l. as tki-him-6dgaia, i.o, » nilmtcr, or deayed 

p & ! ' , r k e which has appeared in the side. , o .vho, 
piece, of hon . , 349) and chyuta-bhagna 



[C Ha .p in. 


quantity. (352) Then mix into it one Adhaka" of oil, and .-wld i'ouv times as much of 

milk. Now boil the whole again in a kettle, throwing in at the same time pastes of the 
following drugs : (353) cardamoms, dill-seeds, Kushtha ( Saussurea Lappa), Vyagkranakha 
(Unguis odoratus) , cinnamon-bark, liquorice, ginger, deodar, Bala (Sida cordifolia ) , 
Sthira ^ Lesmodinm gangeticum), (354) *liasna ( Vanda JRoxhurghii), roots of Huskkara 1 ' 

X a rdostachys 

N alada 

Dravahti ( fpomoea reniformis ) , Surasa 

( Ocimu hi sanctum), Vacha (Acorus Calamus), (355) SvadarhslitiA yTribulus terrestris). 

leaf I 

— — — — j 

racemos us ) . H aving 
the whole , (3561 an 



fire. This oil may be used in the form of a potion, or of an enema, or of a liniment, or 
of an errhine, or in the preparation of one’s food, (357) Now, listen to the enumeration 
of the diseases in which it may lie administered in any of those forms. It may be given 
to people who suffer from lameness or dumbness, from paraplegia or facial paralysis, (358) 
from festering splinters oi bone in the side, from dislocation or fracture of the hones or 
joints, or to people whose elements 180 are impaired or deformed through generality deranged 



ations through deranged 
air 1,8 , or from debitity or impaired senses, (360) also to men whose semen is exhausted, 
or to people who are suffering from sterility caused by jealousy, 

Twelfth Leaf: Obverse. 

or whose minds are oppressed by 
demoniac influences or by a combination of two disordered humours, 182 (361) or who suffer 
from remittent fever, abdominal tumours due to deranged blood, deep-seated abscesses, 


sciatica, spleen, abdominal tumours due to deranged air, and 

Also women should take it who suffer from any disease of the womb 147 , and 

and who do not conceive when the time of puberty has arrived, (363) also such as have a 
protracted parturition, as well as such as are barren, or suffer from some defect in the 
womb. A barren woman who (preparatory to cohabitation) has bathed herself after 
menstruation is sure to conceive ; there is no doubt about this. (364) In fact, it should 
be given to a woman at once when she has taken her bath after a period of menstruation. 
It is an excellent preparation to produce strength and colour, and to create intelligence 
and (365) memory. It is altogether a very effective strengthening medicine which 

cures all diseases and causes children to grow, 
which may be administered in all four forms; 183 

(366#) It is an ambrosia-like medicine 

178 Aribhakta, as a medical term, is unknown. Kaviraj 
B. B. Gupta suggested the meaning ‘ undim unshed/ Appa- 
rently it indicates that the mixture is not to he boiled do*n, 
or reduced to one -fourth, or one-eighth, but is simply to he 
brought to the point of boiling, and then removed from the 
hre. It is. therefore, the opposite of avatishta or avaUshita. 
** See Part I, note 34 : also ante, note 141. 
m Khada is not noted in any dictionary. The translation 
* gout in the hand J has been suggested by hhataka , which 
in Med. Diet, is stated to mean kubjita-pdni, deformed hand. 
Compare also Shall i. explained in not* 1 u& 

1S - SamSrisIita, if correctly restored, is a synonym of sam* 
sarga; see Aninadatta's commentary to AH., Ill, u (v. 32). 

183 By the “ four forms “ are probably meant the follow- 
ing : 1, pan a or ‘potion,’ 2, abhyanga or ‘liniment.’ 3, vastt 
or ‘ enema/ and 4, nasya or ‘ errliine/ hese four forms 
are enumerated above in verse 35b, also verses 305, 332, 
339, et passim. Both Charaka and Susruta give this four- 
fold division ; thus, S., IV, 31 539 (§ 13) divides medicated 
sneha (oils, etc.) into three classes: Jchara or ‘thick, 
madhyama or ‘middling/ and tnftdu or ‘ soft/ ‘thin, and 
says that a pan a should he mridu, while an abhyanga and a 





C^ ? 


ER ^ ANUS °1 » vtt i>AKT it 

(XII) The Sy ADASt8HTRA ^ ^ 

in 12 Slftka. 


/g66# — '379a.; I will now explain the Sv; 
0 f which men s nervous diseases 141 
*J Nabbasya' 86 ~ il " ^ gjgj* 

(.367), by the proper applica- 

Vicinal plants spring up on the face of the earth (368) ’ “ wWch numerous 

J from the seasonable rain-clouds (369) on the ground C Z°J * *** 

: ra > a V ue ™amshtrft oil' s M? 

nervous diseases 141 mav v, ’ ' 

are the two best months of rt ° overconie - 

surma; un on tW ° f thc 8 ™ (3 

fall trow — - ’ \« w ; on the ground Covered 

rfhen taKC 4 - . , , «ueu 11 nas yet no flowers nor fmit as It 

•**;*? i L a ^rLTp»r l i(8,o ’,“ a ** wu ““ 

moment, on a f ay, put it in a clean state in a clean wooden mortar, and 

pound it. (371) T en s rain as much as one ddliaka 9 of its juice through a piece of cloth, 
an d add to it one pras a 0 oil and four times as much of milk, (872) also eight pda* 
0 f molasses, and six pa a 0 ginger. After boiling the whole, let it stand in a pure, clean 
— ’ “not, less vessel. (373) Of this j ire carat-ion a small quantity may he drunk at a time, 

v_/ vv/i, u VI1J 

and spotless vessel. (373) Of this preparation 

and afterwards one should drink milk and eat molasses, together with 

ginger, (371) mtcl when the oil is digested, one may partake of Shaslitika rice'* 7 cooked 
^ith milk. Now, listen, as I tell you the diseases which it relieves. (:>75) It is an 

. . . . , and most highly valued as a remedy for people afflicted 

rAL diseases. 376) It is unsurpassed, indeed, as a medicine 1 ** promoting the 

growth of men's strength and health. It n J1 

8* II ? ^ i— s 

excellent oil • 

V^lirii uciw>* u ~ ~ -- — r ~ — — 3 r — o 

growth of men's strength and health. It removes tine vitiated air, when it has penetrated 
through the whole body, (377) and such as are moving about It 

cures paralytic shaking and trembling. It is also beneficial to people suffering from 
sciatica, (378) also in the case of fistula in ano, skin- diseases, and abdominal tumours, also 
to people suffering from epilepsy, and to young women who suffer from diseases of the 


Twelfth Leaf: He verse. 

(379 a ) A 11 these diseases it infallibly destroys, just as the thunderbolt destroys 
the Asuras. 

(Ml) AU ou«- - muci of j» ice Of chelmlic 
382.) Boil om kuW of oil w* tw ^ ^ 



ncisya should he madhyama , and a rush 3 ° u ^ e 
Charaka says : Jckaro ’ bhyawge, w? ridu r-naryi, p e _ ^f, . . 
dm madhyamah , *i.e., for ointments (an oil) shou e 
for an errhine it should be soft, and for a Potion m 

should he middling/ See also S., IV, 31 536 (§ )» er . ^ . 

subdmsions are enumerated ; also AS., V, 8 (P* ’ , 

and AH., V, 6 (v. 19 - 21 ). A different, four-fold i ’ 

applicable to oils applied to the head, is gi\enm 
* - (V. - 23 ), and Mat Med., p. 1 8 . This division, of course, 

^not be here intended. .1. roI1 . 

iS4 This formula is found in another, but very , ^ 

tracted, recension in Ch., VI, 18 783 , (w. 14 - 2 , 113 . ^ 

^i„ n it is gi ven in y.. xxll « (w. Ax 

6 ingredients are the same, but all the proportions ^ 

ntsare tne same, ouv . er y 

1S& The construction of the original text is 

a ^ard. SvadaAhshtr^vdta^irijayam seems to i g 

nf « . * . meaning ‘curing nervous disea^ 7^ 



meaning ‘curing mrvu- 
. ,, But I would suggest to 

J V‘ * * ” 

* ,® m aya w, ., n fv, p rainy 

Xabkas and Nabhasya are the tvro months 

season, usually called §rava?a (July- August > mA BUdm 
(August- September). On the seasons, see Part I, note < 6 . 

- g . X, ,,o Li vrihi I or ‘sixtv-days (nee), also 
w Shatkftta (tel. " l, “ j . f, . : , • i50e 

called gaura-shas . i white variety of rice which 

y. f LXXXVl , ^ sowin g, between Jyesht>n Mar- 

ripens in sixty 7 f , . t) , This and the red varieties 

**>)."* ^ considered the most 

superior for diet y . ^ 120)> The ml variety, 

20 n (§ m A I’ \imply called H R he., * the (^holesome) 

,.J! ahorter recension) °ii u j 3 . ^4 519 (w. 446 * 45 ;. fee© 

st,n shoito 180)i an d AH., VI, -A 
V ,L /;’ note 427 . 

also i-ufTd, op* 

* * iv It 



[Chap. Ill 


myrobalan, throwing in also pastes of one karsha 9 each of the following drugs: (331) 
liquorice, Prapaundavika 151 , fresh blue lotuses, long pepper, and sandal. This oil should 
always be administered with two fingers as an errhine. 1110 (382) It cures any complaints 
in the head ; it even restores the black hairs of an old man, after being used for one year. 

(XIV) An Oil for an Antifebrile Enema, 101 

in 3 41dka. 

(3S3 — 3S5.) Take Jivanti (Dendrobium multicaule) , liquorice, Meda 71 , long pepper, 
Madana (Rand-ha dumetorum) } Vacha ( Acorns Calamus) , Riddhi 71 , *RAsna ( Vanda 
j Roxburgh l i) i Bala (Si da cor difolia) , bel, dill, Satavari (Asparagus racemosus ), (384) 
and having made them into a paste, boil the whole in milk and water, together with 
clarified butter and oil. This oily enema 112 makes a remedy for fever. (385) Through 
removing the vitiated humours by the excretory passage and thus restoring the balance 
of the elements 18 °, the patient gets rid o kis pains, feels himself easy, and becomes 
thoroughly free from fever. 

(XV) An Oil for an Enema, 193 

in 4 41ok a. 

(3S6 — 3S9.) Take long pepper, liquorice, be), dill, Madana (Randia dumetorum ), 
VacM ( Acorns Calamus ), Kuslxtha (Saussurea Lappa), zedoary, root of Pushkara 13 , 
plumbago-root, mid deodar, (387) and having made them into pastes, boil them in oil 
with t wice as much of milk. This makes a most excellent oily enema 142 for piles and 
flatulency. (3SS) It cures prolapsus ani, colic, strangury, and dysentery, infirmity in 
the hips, thighs or back, costiveness, and pains in the groin, (389) slimy discharges, 
inflammation of the rectum, obstruction of wind and faeces, and frequent evacuation. It 
is an oily- enema which overcomes all these diseases . 

(XVI) An Oil for the cure of Xervous Diseases, 

in 3 4l6ka. 


(390 — 392.) Take five prastha 9 of the juice of radishes and four of curds, also three 
kudava 9 of sukta 67 and three of oil, (391) also four pala 9 of rock-salt and eight of fresh 
ginger; but if fresh is not available, let it be sixteen pala of dry ginger. (392) This 
preparation relieves sciatica, paraplegia, and attacks of severe gout, 194 also all diseases of 
the hips, and nervous diseases due to hard d linking. 

190 That is, it should be administered (as the Char aka recen- 
sion states, see note 1S9) in the form of a <pratimar$a. On 
this see Mat. Med., p. 17, and Sa., Ill, 8 277 (v. 36). It is done 
by dropping t wo drops of the medicated oil, at a time, into 
the nose to be snuffed up. Each drop is to he let fall into the 
nose with two lingers (as in the case of an dschyotana , see 
Part I, note 66) . According to AH., I, 20 136 (w. 95-10a), 

V. . LXXXI 10,! ' and Sa., Ill, 8 277 (y. 37), the drops are 
formed by dipping the forefinger, two joints deep, into the 
oil, and allowing the adherent oil to drop from it. 

m This formula is found, in an identical recension, in Ch., 

VI, 3 466 (w. 245, 246) and in another, only slightly differing, 
in All., IV, 1 320 (vv. 12li-l23a). 

m This formula is found in the identical recension in Ch., 
VI, 9 54(1 (vv. 131-135), and in another, also practically identical 
recension, in SY., V, 64-67 % V., IV 189 (vv. 102-105), AH., 
IV, S 281 (vv. S9M3 a)> and Chd., V., 39 338 . 

m X have not been able to trace this formula elsewhere. 
Compare, however, the formula in V., XXII 382 (vv. 391-393) 

and Chd., XXII, S9 2 ". — V ata-hcira is an abbreviation of 
vdta-vgddhi-h ara* See ante, note 141. 

1<J4 Khallivdta, in the simpler form hhalU or hhalvi, is 
mentioned in MN., XXII, 44 153 as a kind of vdta-vgddhi, 
whence it is quoted by Dridhabala in Ch., VI, 28 776 (v. 55 ). 
It is described as excruciating pains ( avamotana ) in the feet, 
legs, thighs, and wrists. It also occurs in SY., VI, 61 m , 
where it is mentioned as a symptom of vishuc/tikd, or cholera, 
and explained in Srikanthadatta’s commentary as ‘crushing 
pains in the hands and elsewhere.' !n AS., Ill, 15 3U2 
(quoted in AH., 1 II, 15, v. 55a) khalli is said to be a 
severe form (tmra-ruj -dnvitd) of the two diseases gridhrasi 
and vi&vdchi, though this definition is said by Gayadosa 
(as stated by Vijaya Rakshita in his comment on the passage 
of the Nidana, above referred to) to be really due to Harita. 
Susruta in II, 1 ~ 19 (v. 73, 74) does not employ the term khalli 
at all, but he names the two diseases grid lira si and vifvdchi, 
and describes them as gout in the lower and upper limbs respec- 
tively. See also ante, note 181. 






An Oil for an Errliine for Hair and Head 


in 3 6 l 6 ka. 


*** « MOita. 

,'SOS — 3f»5.) Takc the following ten ingredient . r • 

lum mdic um), rock-salt, and seeds of A d Wki ?o — Pra P au ^artka-«, Vrikatl 

Baffin (Piper aurantiaoum), the two Haridr * 99 a T7* WdlCm)i also liaK ‘ ri P ,; 
„ 0 f one aksha 9 eacli of these, ’ d lon S P°PP cr - (894) Make 

Thirteenth Leaf: Obverse. 

i . ... . and b ?’ 1 f /<e w/ '' o/e slowl y in half a prastha 9 of oil and fonr 

times as . . ’ . ’ a er ® an 5 rin n it, administer it perseyeringly in the form of 

jm errbinc. (39o) By this preparation wrinkles and grey hair, . . . brown spots on the 

face, antl a11 (diseases ol the head) are cured. So the medical authorities 

(XVIII) An Oil to remove Wrinkles and Grey Hair. 10 

(396 398.) Take one prastha? each of t lie juice of emblic myrobalan, oleander, 
Bliringaraja ( Eclijjtci alba), and (sweet) oil, (397) and boil these four prastha in a new 
vessel of iron. Then let it stand for a month in a box made of pias&l-wood ( Terminalia 
foment osa) . (398) This oil removes wrinkles and premature grey hair, and may even 

change the white colour of cows, dogs, asses, camels, and white-feathered birds . 106 

(XIX) A Formula for curing Adenia , 106 

( 399 — 401rt.) Take equal parts of Phanijjhaka ( Origanum Marjoram ), Kshavaka 
Uchyranthes as per a), Nadeya [Sesbania cegyptiaca), Navamalika (Jasminum Sambao), 
sonchal-salt, Vaclia ( Acorns Calamus), and asafeetida. (100) That is, of these drugs take 
one aksha 9 each, and boil them in one prastha 9 of oil over a gentle fi 'c, together with an 
equal part (i.e.. one prastha) of the urine of a faultless female animal 19 ' and four par s 
(£<?.. four prastha) of goat’s milk. (401a) Tlien administer the preparation i the iorni 

of au errliine to cure adenia. 

(4016— 403a.) 

(XX) Another excellent Formula for A denia. 

, n o„i m al . c a dead Mack snake, and place it in a new (earthen) vessel, 

having covered its mouth wit i < P k ^ ^ ^ - t M a p i as ter over his (i.e., 

very strong fire. When done, ^tion of this remedy for no more than 

die patient’s) enlarged glands. (40 3e) 1 

seven days will effect a cure of the adenia. 

(402) and 

** The effect on the white colour of animals is only added 


’* Viajorcm gloi'iam of the oil. t t ^ r lOVP 

“ I have not been able to trace this tonula clsewhu • 

. . however, the formula in Oh., VI, 2«' 56 > 13J)> 

PfBfela the section on head-diseases. , ii. 0 

’ : SasyiH must here refer to the cow, accordm 
P given in rart I, verse 59. '1 he word ^ 

*Vii, 5. % 68, said to mean ‘ endowed with good qua 

martik ‘ a faultless gem, ’ 

■ a set? the Petersburg Dictionary* 

,98 with this formula may bo compared one in AH 

n 30 “ ( w : ** Zk Jth the burnt (dagdha) body of a 
things, d . cd nilturalIy {sm yam-mnta) and the 

S - m er A* « “ m. 

-1 1 6 


[Chap. IV. 

Tuia Fourth Oharttcu: Mimo»m,an koiia Fo rmubak. 

In this ilmptor avo shall dnserihn miscnllanoous fornmhu*. 

Tavo Formulae for f in* Cure of Leprosy, 19 * 

in 2 616ka. 


(Verso 404) Having poured out 200 misted sesame-seed from tin 


? pan into 

milk to cool it , make it thoroughly into a. });ust<\ This, when mixed with liquorioe, will 
form a poultice* 01 which may be used as a 



(405.) Similarly an excellent plaster 188 may he made of wheat with goat’s milk and 
clarified butter. IJus may be considered the principal remedy for the cure of leprosy. 

Four Formulae for the Cure of Fetid Diarrhoea, 202 

in 7 61dka. 


(406.) Clarified butter, oil, treacle, sukta w , and ginger; — a potion, made of these 
th'e ingredients, will give immediate relief from severe pains in the sacrum. 


(407 and 408.) Root of plumbago and of long pepper, VacM (Acorus Calamus), 

Katukardbicu (Picrorrhiza Ktirroa), PatM ( Stephania her nandi folia ) , seeds of Vatsaka 

( Jlolarrhena antidy sent erica), chebulic myrobalan, and ginger (408) a preparation of 

these quickly stops acute diarrhoea attended with fetid discharges 203 and severe pain, also 
stools charged with phlegm or bile. 

]9 ° These two formulae are quoted in my preliminary paper 
on the BoAver MS., in the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, for 1891, p, 58. — Substantially the same two formulae 
are found in V., XXIII 498 (v.35), Chd., XXI II, 11, 12 306 , 
and BhP., II, 2 - m , with the following two differences, how- 
ever : (1) liquorice is omitted from the iirst formula, (2) both 
formulae are for plasters {pralepa), With the formulae, as 
given in these three works, Ch., VI, 29 m (v. 1.37 } and AH., 
IV, 22 430 (v. 83) agree, with the following difference that 
they substitute the root of Sakachara ( Barleria cristata) and 
Jimnti ( Dendrobium multieaule) for Godhvma or * wheat’. 
Ch., VI, 29 802 (v. 131), and V„ XXIII «» (v. 63), however, give 
a formula for making a poultice {pradeha) which, in addition 
to sesame, liquorice, and milk, requires three or four other 
ingredients. Moreover, Chd., XXIII, 11 m quotes in its com- 
mentary a formula from Charaka for making a poultice which 
otherwise agrees with our second formula. It runs thus: 
tale m-rakti sa-ghfitah pradeha \ god hdma- ch drnam ckhd- 
g all-pay a$-~ cha H i.e., ‘a poultice may be made with clarified 
bui ter, powdered wheat, and goat’s milk. ’ I have not been 
able, however, to trace this formula in any copy of Charaka 
accessible to me. 

a>0 Arunadatta, in his commentary to AH., I, 30 (v. 17), 
explains nirmya by Utt-kritya, having cooled (see also 
ibidem, IV, 6 ( v . 60), and niredpya phhpd by Htt-kfitya 
kshdra n i shy a:iddna. drishadi phhfod , i.e., having cooled and 
made it into paste with lye in a mortar. Ibidem, II, 1 (v. 39) 
niwdpya kshjri is explained by niv&ya i third, having 
ippe m o milk. This is said of a doll made of gold or silver 

or iron, which is to be made red-hot, and then to be dipped in 
milk ; of that milk a handful may be drunk as a charm. 

201 On plasters {pralepa) and poultices {pradeha) see Mat. 
Med,, p, 19 ; also S., I, 18 69 and Sa., Ill, 11 296 {Yy ^ 

The first three formulae are in the original text marked 
off by the numbers 1, 2, 3. The first of them, as I learn 
from Dr. Cordier, occurs in KS., XI, v. 58. The second 
formula is found almost identically in S., VI, 40 783 lyv. 35 a, 
365) and V., II 83 (vv. 32, 33), but the latter reads sa-vdtarh 
for purisham. Alf., IV, 9 375 (vv. 1045, 105a) has it in 
another recension ; and SY., Ill, 34 76 and Chd., Ill, 23 w 
gives only the latter portion of the formula, beginning with 
put ha . The third and fourth formulae are mere varieties 
of one another, the fourth substituting saindham for tryu- 
shana, the other five ingredients being the same in both. 
Both formulae, as the corresponding recensions, quoted below, 
show, consist of six ingredients. In the third formula, as 
given in our Manuscript, there is probably a clerical error, and 
Vachd should be read for the second tathd. Compare the 
similar recensions, all of which include Vachd , in S., VI, 40 783 
(v. 35«), V., II 83 (v. 27), Chd., Ill, 20 89 , AH., IV, 9 375 
(vv. 1055, 106a), BhP., II, 1 « 2 , HS V , Ml, 3 ]fl6 . An early 
identical recension of the fourth formula occurs in V., II 83 
(v. 29) and BhP., II, 1 136 . S., VI, 40 78 ‘ (v. 46) has 
another recension of it which omits saindhava. 

3113 Ama-sathutthdnam-cdh'dra, is the same as the simpler 
dm-dtUdra, lit., unripe, or undigested, diarrhoea. Ama is a 
morbid state of the bowels, when they do not digest properly, 
but excrete solid and fetid matter. 

! 17 

CS* P- 


B0WP4i MANtrsC 


'■Ak'r n. 

, ^ . fllT) 

ami 410.) Clioliulic myrolialan the t.h 

. M l*** Galamm) and AtivishlL UconituT'i nSaf ® ti<la > B°no1ud^lt, also 

YLe may l>e drunk with warm water. (_t 1(n ;-a preparation made 

% fetid discharges 203 and severe pain, just as the ^oTs ! 0 t \^ atte " dei 


i0 jT^ A ^ (Acorus 0^4 heterophyllum), a-safcetida, 

Thirteenth Leaf ; Reverse. 

. a P as ^ e of these may be drunk 

-rrl;]i warm water. (4* ) is preparation against letid diarrhoea is much approved by 

physicians, but a doctor who cares for his profit and credit should use it with discretion. 

(Four Formulae for Astringents against Diarrhoea. 204 ) 


(413 and 414 a.) Kernels of the jaman and mango 205 , K6dhra (Sywplocos racemose e), 
rind of pomegranate, rasot, Ananta ( Hemi lesmm indicus ), small cardamoms, and filaments 
of the lotus (414a) these mixed with one part of honey are said to make an excellent 


(ii) - 

(4148-416..) Basot, galena, talc, toya (P.mrfi. f *■!*, Mnsto (C^ 

Katpliala (M,™ gg Sri** ( 2 K-*. 

SS =”( 



d pither from cucumuci-^- , — 

tl66 and 417.) A potion may t>f Vatsaka ( Eolanhena antidysentenca) 

01 from rind of pomegranate and bark * ^ makc astnngente m 

butter-milk. These two formulae are co 

f diarrhoea. 

ne of these four formulae can he traced 
work. There are, however, many ^ gMn0 
made up, in varying combina ions )ae) _ R> 

da, such as Ch„ VI, 10“* (w. 57-61, ■* fonntt lae, 

iv v. ( 04'2, six formulae, vv. u6* > ri ss (yv 52, 

n 89 ), AH, IV, 9 3 ' 3 (W. 56 a- 63 ), V., ^ ^ « 

^2*94, 105, 174, 175). Chd., II » * ..,g i t )5, 

1 136 ^ * 1 * ^ n ‘ ’ ’ 

174, 175). CJid.,1 • - jgg,!. 15, 

1 w* (yy, X-4, four formulae, a P quoted, 

l y he noted, that most of the form » 

T'/'Vrv*. ^ . i.1 , 

. . .tone ’ of the mango if intended the 

so» By or . cfhi-madbVOt 38 th® correspon 1 o 

i <rf fhe stone> or as ^ lv/iws It is also called 

kernel of the 1 « 40 :8 . ( T . 67). shows. 

formula » « • ’ ee note 29 4.-Jh>n 3n 18 th * 9 
• uL&rroWj ® 

war/ an * . is puzzhng 


bL g ^ ;; Altogether satisfactory- 8 r * 

however, « 110 

roxn one another. 

C h «*» 

1 v f 

f a M A N » 

Hi u tar, i’Airt t| 

-.v/l t>jf Auftfilft > 

rtu** * , 4 * mi i|| ji / t i i * 

*,«>* <>f ** »«**-{*u*) thewj **^*»>. 

|SC «tt«n* Mtrtasrwat* W " u «w* part or t» m «y w 

(414*-*16«. ) Rasot, catena, tala, bitumen xt 
iMyr ica (415) kernels of the j Anian * , u * tn tCyperus rotimdm), Kotphai 

0 f 0 i trorn»‘)t \atsaka (/7 olarrhena a»lidugr H /„ ■ 1 m i an 8 oW \ 

' — % Jloribunda), Lftdh iT3£2& 

/ s a . ' U (rrfl'Dr./kAAMi 

Dlifttakf ( Woodford 

a. -fc JT A . . 1 _ A 1 ^ 

^ — M 1 IT IT - \ t 

WVaHtfftOl rtliare VA1 v*i . ’ 

* » also bet, Yfitfa (sitfatni 

\£tombax tnalt/h/tric 

K *tf \ 

iMK"- — "—/» «vum^, (iSumn/ftA " BBHBHBHBBHBBBI 

burffhiana), Mfichikn (Moringa pterggo» perma) and " rao *”“>»a), Phalt (Aglaia Ho'x 
from these with rice, treacle and honey makes ; ' m 0X ^J V ^” lT (41 ^ * **** 


(Ill and IV) 

(41 66 and 417.) A potion may he prepared either from cucumh 
(417) or from rind of pomegranate and hark of Vatsaka t „ , ® wUVl 

with butter-milk. These two formulae are considered to 

cases of diarrhoea. excellent astringents in 

A Formula of the Alvins to cure Haemorrhage,''” 

|- in 8 I16ka. 10 ‘ 

(418 and 425.) Loudly proclaiming, the excellent Alvins, the best of physicians, for 
the benefit of those suffering from haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, and fever, (419) taught 
to Vasava (i.e., Indra) the following formula, which had been declared by Brahma of 
old ■ — Sandal, bialada (Nat do&tachys Jal aniansi) , llodhra ( Syniplocos racetnosa ), Ysira 
( Andropogon muricatm), filaments of the lotus, (420) N&gapushpa (Messua fenea), bel, 

Bl adraMUsta (Cyperus rotundus), and sugar; also Hirivera ( JPavonia adorata ), Bhtlm 
(Stephania hevnandif olid) , fruit and hark of Kutaja ( Holarrhena antidy sent cried), 
(421) ginger. At i vis ha ( Aconitum heterophyllum), Dhataki ( Woodfordia jloribunda ), 
and rasot ; also kernel of the mango and the jaman, and gum of M6el\a {Bornbax 
malabctricum), ( 422 ) blue lotus, Samanga ( Mimosa pudica), small cardamoms, and rind 
of pomegranate. Of these twenty-four ingredients take equal parts, ( 423 ) and make 

into a potion with rice-water and honey. As such it is beneficial to people 
suffering from hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, and fever ; ( 424 ) it may also he given to people 
biect to fits of swooning and syncope 49 , and troubled with morbid thirst; it aim 
- * vomiting, and suppression of the menses in women. ( 425 ) f lhis 

edy against hemorrhagia ; it is also said to be an 

them up 

, su 

cures diarrhea. 

formula, devised by the Alvins, is a 
excellent means of arresting threatening miscarriages. 

lea <1^ reading of the text here is 

ji mh 

puzzling and probably I in nearly identical terms, with only a few slight verbal 

vr . alterations. - * < 

corrupt. I read abhrark, SaMyam, as suggested by Kaviraj 

Binod Bihari Gupta Kavibhushana, these two drugs ein H . ^gyba 

used in the case of bowel complaints. The emendation, how- I error , 

ever, is not altogether satisfactory. . 

this formula in any medical work, 

itions. „ ... .. Bul this is deatly an 

error ; for the Asvma fornu a consijsouly & 

a the preceding ft. « ' « * | £ count be made fr<« 

168 I cannot trace 

except the Vangasena XI s ’? (vv. 93-99ff) 

There it is given 

total amounts to 13 sldka (or 12*, 

the asterisk in the text). 

2 a 



[Chap. IV. 

A Formula of the Agvins to cure Haemorrhage, 207 
(including which there arc) 1 3 &l6ka» m 

(418 and 425.) Loudly proclaiming, the excellent A&vins, i lie best ol physicians, for 
the benefit of those suffering from hsemorrliage, hemorrhoids, and fever, (419) taught 
to Yasara (i.e., Indra) the following formula which hacl been declared by Brahma of 
old: — Sandal, Nalada (N ar dost achy s J at am ansi), llfldhra (Sympl ocos racemose), Usira 
(. Andropogon muricatus ), filaments of the lotus, (420) Nagapushpa [Jlessua f erred, ), bel, 
Bhadramusta (Qyperus rotundas), and sugar ; also Hirivera ( Pavonia odor at a), Patlia 
(Stephania hernandifolia) , fruit and hark of Kutaja ( Holar rhena antidy sent erica), 
(421) ginger, AtivisM (Aconitum heterophyllum), Dhataki ( IF oodfordia jloribunda), 
and rasot ; also kernel of the mango and the jaman 205 , and gum of Mocha t Bomhax 
malabaricum ), (422) blue lotus, Samanga (Mimosa pitdica), small cardamoms, and rind 
of pomegranate. Of these twenty- four ingredients take equal parts, (423) and make 
them up into a potion with rice-water and honey. As such it is beneficial to people 
suffering from haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, and fever, (424 > it may also be given to people 
subject to fits of swooning and syncope 02 , and troubled with morbid thirst ; it also 
cures diarrhoea, vomiting, and suppression of the menses in women. (425) This formula, 
devised by the Asvins, is a remedy against haemorrhagia ; it is also saidlo be an excellent 
means of arresting threatening miscarriages. 

(Four Formulae for the Cure of Dysentery. 209 ) 


(426 and 427.) Take curds, clarified butter, oil, ginger, and molasses, also honey and 
powder of (dried) jujube ; and having stirred the whole together, give it to the patient to 
drink. (427) This preparation effectively restrains acute diarrhoea, just as the wind does 
the current of a river as if it were obstructed by a weir of creepers. 


(428.) Or prepare a paste of j jujube leaves, cbebulic myrobalan, and B6dhra 
(Symplocos racemosa), with the juice of wood- apples and honey, and take it as a draught 
with curds. 


(429.) A patient overcome with the pains of dysentery should drink . . 

boiled with the root of Adhaki Cajanus indie us), after having strained it and boiled it 
again in smoked clarified butter 209 . This preparation relieves the most intense pain. 

-° 7 1 cannot trace this formula in any medical work, except 
V., VIII (w. 93-99«). There it is given in nearly iden- 
tical terms, with only a few slight verbal alterations. 

208 The text reads *’ 12 slot a, which must he ? clerical error 
for 13 ; for the count is from v. 413 to v. 425* The Asvina 
formula, by itself, has only 8 sl&ka. 

** I have been able to trace only the first and second of 
these four formulae in other medical works. The first occurs 

sitd or * sugar * for 

in a different recension, substituting 

h arkandkU'churna, in V., II 107 (v. 282). In a third recen- 
sion, in which it is broken up into two distinct formulae, it 
is found in AH., IV, 9 370 (v. 18). The second formula oc- 
curs m two different recensions in V,, II 107 (v. 287, also v. 103) 
and AH., IV, 9 371 (vv. 366 and 37a). In both of these 
Dh&taki (Woodfordia florihunda) is substituted for Ahhayd 
or ‘ chebi! lie myrobalan.’ — On smoked clarified butter (v. 
429), see t nfra, v. 868, 



[Chap. VIli, 

Tub Eighth Chapter: Formulae for Aphrodisiacs. 316 

(I) Tho SarasvatJ ( Clarified ButterT 17 

( Verses 814 and BI5.) Juice o:l sugar-cane, Vid&ri {Ipomoea digitata ), emblic 
myrobalan, clarified butter, milk, and honey: — of these take one prastha 9 each, and an 
equal quantity of meat-broth, (815) also five pala of liquorice and one prastha of decor- 
ticated Mas a ( Phaseolus Roxburghii ). This is the Sarasvati clarified butter for a 
Kajarshi who desires to beget a son. 


(816 — 818.) 10 Boil one prastha 9 each of the juice of emblic myrobalan and sugar-cane, 
also one prastha each of the milk of a goat and of a cow 313 ; (817) also one prastha each 
of the juice of Vid&ri {Ipomoea digitata) and clarified butter. When this mixture has 
become cool add one prastha of honey and twenty- five pala 319 of sugar, (818) also two 
kudava (i.e, 9 one each) of black pepper and long pepper, cleaned and powdered. This 
makes a most excellent quickening, strengthening, and aphrodisiac medicine . 

^ k „ JW ’ •»“ # - -r 


(819.) 3a0 Boil clarified butter and paste of Satavari ( Asparagus racemosus ) in ten 
times the former’s quantity of milk. This, when mixed with sugar, long pepper, and 

small-bees’ honey, makes a most excellent aphrodisiac. 



(820.) "Juice of G6kshuraka ( Tributes terrestris), clarified butter, and milk of 
Doth a goat and a cow, together with one prasrita 0 of honey, makes a prescription 
capacitating a man for twenty (seminal) e missions. 

E M M L I m 

(821 and 822.) 10 Let powders of Vidari ( Ipomoea digitata ), and cowhage, also emblic 
■myrobalan, Yavasa ( Alhagi maurorum ), and • • 

Twenty-fifth Leaf : Reverse. 

he made into a paste 

with milk. (822) Let it then be fried in clarified butter, and when it has cooled, let it 

316 The colophon in the text adds that this compendium or 
conspectus is drawn from the doctrines of sundry professors 
■(ndn-dehdrya) of medicine. 

3 ^ 7 I have not been able to trace this formula elsewhere. 
It is not apparent why it is called the Sarasvati clarified 
butter. Sarasvati is a synonym of Brahmi (Kerpestris 
Monieria) as well as of Jyotuhmati (Cardiospermum Hali* 
oacabum). But neither of these two enter into the formula. 
There are two other formulae for a Sarasvata clarified butter, 
of which one will be found ante , p. 103. That gives a remedy 
against defects in speech, and tabes its name from Sarasvati, 
the goddess of speech. The other, given in the Vangasena* 
p. 994 (see ante , p, 103, note 107), is a rasdyana or tonic 

prescription, and takes its name from its first ingredient 

318 Payasah , ( of milk, * I refer to cow’s milk, as it is not 
specified ; see ante , Part T, p. 17, note 40. Compare also the 
fourth formula (verse 820) where also both are prescribed, 
goat’s milk as well as cow’s milk. 

319 The measure is here not mentioned in the text; but 
pala must be intended. Twenty-five pala are slightly more 
than one and a half prastha. See ante, note 9. 

320 This formula is found, in the identical recension, in 
the Char aka VI, Cbakradatta LXXI, ll' 37 , and 1 angasena 

LXXV 1003 (v. 74), 






honey. By eating this 

a wasted man will 


j yigOUT . 

“gain attain to 


• i • 

* # 

* * 


/$■}$ and 821) 

,i of sugar, likewise honey 

1 Moksha should he eaten by a mo In whoso member has 
take any sour or acrid food, 

• together 
Of this 

• He s 



827.) 10 E°il one P ala " eacb of cowhage and of the roots of the set of five 
one adhaka of water. To this decoction add one and one-half as much of milk 

dru 2 s' i n one a ^ naKa ° ‘ n«uucDion aaa one and one-half as much of 

(326) also one prastha of powdered sugar, and one prastha each of honey and cl 
h Iter. Then with wheaten flour make this up into boluses weighing one pala 

gutter. Then _ ^ a — a — 

(S27) By eating one of t hese a man may engage in sixty copulations, and becomes 
' - women. It is said to be a most excellent aphrodisiac. 


10 The more any one eats of purified and decorticated 111 sesamum-seeds, mac* 


in the broth of sparrows, tlie more he will be able to engage in sexual intercourse. 


(829 and 830a.) M2 Let wheaten flour and cowiiage -seeds he boiled in milk, and, 
when cool, mix with honey and clarified butter. After having eaten this confection, 
drink some milk of a heifer. (830a) By the use of this a man will acquire unfailing 

sexual vigour for a fortnight. 


(8306 832a.) 323 Let well-washed Masha (Phaseolus Boxh itrghii) be boiled in a 

decoction of Svadamshtra ( Tribulus terrestris) and milk, (831) and mix it with honey 
and clarified butter. Of this confection a lump of the size of a bel 9 may e ea. en, an 
after it, in the evening, some milk mixed with sugar should be drunk (832 «) by any 

man who desires in one day to go into a hundred women. 


should be fried in 

(8326 and 833a.) u Vidari ( Ipomoea> . 
and honey. (833a) When cool, one may eat of this 


much as one 


engage in 

(XII) macerate it in the 

(8336 and 834a.) 32i Take powders of Vidarl {Ipomoea l 9 

J r . .. . Hridava VI, 40 5 ' 1 

ComtiL^v 6 able to trace this formula elsewhere. 

.. P ©) however, tb* ^ mu Prakasa III 224 

the formula in the Bbava Prakasa III 221 
tt’s | 

^ „ nst ' 

:n heSn ^b, ina 

also a warn* . 8 Hindu Materia 
322 This ? a ^ a ^ s l' * practices 

is given 

(lines 8 oi i ^ 6Deiormi iJ 
^ 80 a Hindu Materia Medica, p. 125, where 


^ IV 

h for 

40577 (vv. 236, 24) 

, „ practically identical recension, is found 

it 26519 (v ' 27 )* ^ another recension, com- 

B?idaya Vt i ^Xll, it is given in the Ashtanga 

J v i> 4sO° 7 - fvw 9QI. n.N 

, . e \ chtanga Hridaya V 1, 40*' 
s23 Compare the formula i (i _ are - J 

(v 34) where, ^ever, three otho^ n^ 

Sosratft XV, ^ ^ 

sena LXXV 997 (J- ^ 1 [in( i u Mfttena ^“ '^aitionnl 

Si. « '"■■■■I 


How kh MANUBOttIPT, I'aiit ii. 

[Chap. VIII. 

juico of the same plant, (h.’IAo) amt make it up into a confection with j 10m 
clarified butter. By eating this a man is made lit for ten emissions * 10,11 y and 


(*316 and 835a.) "Similarly powders of emblio myrobalan may be macerated * 
the juice of the same, (835a) and made up into a confection with clarified butter d 
honey. By eating this one becomes fit for one hundred emissions. 1 U ' 


(8356 and 836a.) 1 Similarly the roots and buds and fruit of ASvagandhd ( Withania 

somnifera), (836a) drunk during the day with milk, produce a night of twenty emis- 



(8366 and 837a.) ^Adhyanda ( Hygrophila spinosa), roots of long pepper, clarified 
butter, and seeds of eowhage, (837a) when applied as a plaster to the (soles of the) 
feet, render a man potent, so long as he does not touch the earth 


* V ' * _ fc 4. * 

(8376 and 838a.) 326 Kaving plucked a sparrow of its feathers, add it to ten times 
its quantity of Lembuka 337 ( Oroxyllum indicum). (838 a) Clarified butter, boiled with 
this, is much recommended as a plaster for the feet. 


(8386— 840a.) m Tahe powders of V idari ( Ipomoea digitata), Masha ( Fhaseolus 
Roxburghii), and red rice, (839) mixed with the fat of a pig, and the eggs and broth of 
sparrows, add salt at discretion, and bake with the whole a sasbkuli 323 in clarified butter. 
(840a) By dint of eating a panitala 221 of this, a man may go into one hundred women. 

Twenty-sixth, Leaf : Obverse. 


(8406 and 841a.) 10 (may be taken) with honey and 

clarified butter ; (841a) and on drinking milk after it, in the summer, a man may enter 
into ten copulations. 


( 8116 — 843a.) 'Let there be the following eight ingredients : 

(842) and juice of the knots of lotus-stalks. Making a paste of these 

825 This formula, in a different recension, is found in the 
gugruta I V, 26 518 (vv. 21, 22a ) , Chakradatta LXXI, 35 733 , 
Vangasena LXXY 097 (v. 12), and Ashtanga Hridaya VI, 40 377 
(vv. 27, 28 a). 

zu with reference to formulae XV and XVI, compare a 
formula given in the Susruta IV, 26 619 (w. 28, 29) for a 
foot-plaster possessing the same virtue. It is curious that 
the latter has chatak-dmja or * sparrow's eggs, ’ where cur 

formula has adhy&nia ehatak&h. The latter is a synonym 
of pippali-mula or * roots of long pepper/ 

324 pembukd is not given in any dictionary. I take it to 
be the same as DimbiM , which is a synonym of Sfyondka. 

318 Compare the formula in the SuSruta IV, 2d 51s (vv. 14 

d;!9 A SashkuU is a pastry-puff in the form of a crescent, 
or o:i a mod aka or * bolus/ 



a draught of spirits of rice, a man attains to sexual vigour^’ foUowia * il U P 

(XX 1 ) 

(8 446 and 845a.) 1,f IIe who eats to satiety of the flesh of 
after it, (845a) his member will not suffer relaxation, nor his 

he engages in copulation. 

acock, and drinks milt 

semen, exhaustion, when 


(8456 and 846a.) S31 He who eats shaslitika rice 117 , prepared with clarified butter, 
together with a sauce of Mfislia ( Phaseolus Motcburghii ) , (846a) and drinks milk after it 
remains awake all night in sexual excitement. 

(XXI II) The Indrapriya prescription, 10 by lianas . 332 

(8466 and 847a.) Sugar, honey, milk, clarified butter, the three aerids 28 , and water: 
(847«) all these should be boiled together, and may then be taken as the Indrapriya or 
potion ‘ beloved by Indra.’ 

The Ninth Chapter: Formulae for Coilyria . 838 


(Verses 8476 — 850a.) 331 0f conch-shell take four parts; of realgar, one-half as much ; 
(818) of black pepper, one-half as much as oi realgar; of rock-salt, one-half as much as 

name, of a smfUi or ‘ law-book ’ (see Aufrecht'a Catalogue 

333 With the exception of one or two formulae, none of 
those <nven in this chapter can be traced in any other medical 
work, though, of course, the ingredients, by themselves, are 

common to all works on Hindu medical science. . 

331 The first part of this formula, giving the m?re * » 

is found identically the same, in the^naLVilhpp.SOO 

ItjanaT 'Sham ^ 

madhuvA ydjyam-arbuM tail • • * 

made of 

leucoma and cataract , in °P t j n |jj e other recension it 
honey ; in tumours, with w V- , &rh „ ia m hantimasluni 
runs thus : edrind tirwram , s Urina tath=irjunm, 

pichakafam „, r es cataract; with whey, 

.e., * applied with water w , ^ „ ;f i, Oman's 

530 This formula occurs, in a practically identical rc- 
lension, in the Charaka VI, 2 450 (Wms 8, 9). The only 
inference is that the latter substitutes spar tow’s flesh for 
Jocks flesh. Compare, however, ibidem, line 13, irom which 
it would appear as if in our Manuscript two formulae had 
>een confused. 

331 This formula, in the identical version, occurs in the 
dmriika VI, 2 4S9 (lines 10, 11). Compare abo Ashtanga 

^5 “ L UP | J 

Jridaya VI, 40 w ? (vv 23 b, 24). 

EH n, _ _ _ 7 

* J \Vf wtI j * 

Usanas, wich the patronymic J^dvpa f was an ancient 
|shi or sage, who was the preceptor of the asums or daityas, 
he opponents of the ddvas. As such lie is always represented 

n antagonism to indra, the chief of the devns. It is 
o^ous that here the composition of a remedy which was a 
vourite with Indra is ascribed to him. It is curious also 
’ both he as well as Vrihaspati, the preceptor of the ddvas, 
C 6e an } e ' P* Ids, note 297) are named as authors of medioid 

LOimnlaa rn % . . r ^ ^ t . _ * 

- uube \ are nameu ^ — 

u To both the composition of mantra or ‘charms 

lahAkJT ° f <rule8 of conduct’ are ascribed in the 

fto x *** ant1 ^ ere 19 an antit0XI ° ctar,n ’ called 

y^\ t6ma m * u g an as’ hymn * (see the larger Petersburg 
\xvr Tfut there is no U4anas known as the author of 

Wa work, though there exists an author, with that 


iad with with woman's wAK 

tumours; with honey* two Vangasena recensions tj 
leucoma.’ Identical *• ‘^dattT LXIL 59‘ u , “ 4 
formula also occurs »’ 

LXII, W-. ■ . , 


now Kit MANUSCRIPT, pa in' ii. 

[Cm,. ix. 

of black pepper. Those mnka tho Wppoaltovy ua<-<l in tlio Videlia" 5 country, which 
like a kuir. , <lostrovs diMWW, (8 1.S1) k-..on* in the rye, disorders of the tunics" 7 ' 

oatm iel, purulent diiohttgea, and bloodahottanncM, The QOnob.«h«ll should be ground 

ia cow’s milk, realgar in goat’s milk, black peppor in slioep’s milk, and rock-salt in 

human milk, 


(861.) '"Ono part of black pepper, two of clearing-nut, three of sugar, four of cuttle- 
fish bone, together with live of calx of brass make a suppository, useful in all diseases of 
the eye. 


(862.) Sugar, rod ochre, honey, and calx o r brass, applied in the form of an 
embrocation, is a pre-eminent remedy against all diseases of the eye. 


(853.) Let curds mixed with salt be well rubbed on an iron vessel, and with it 
anoint the eye when it suffers severe pain ; it will then quickly become well. 


(864. "ltock- salt, Vrihati (Solanum indicum), copper, Katuka (Picrorrhi; t 

Kurroa), conch-shell, and long pepper make the kokila-suppositorv 333 for the cure of 
conjunctivitis, leucoma, and blear-eye. 

I! / (vii) 

(856 and 857.) 3M Let resinous wood of ChkM (Finns longifolia) be made into fine 
powder, and let this powder be macerated for three days in the urine of a he-»oat 
(857) It then becomes a most excellent collyrium for the cure of blear-eye and worms ' 

m The Viddha country is the modem Tirhut, with th 
ancient capital Mithila, It had a reputation for surgery, i 
iMdkya-id&tra or * textbook on surgery * is ascribed to one c 
its kings {vid&ha-pati), see Susruta VI, 658 (v. 3a). See infra 
note 347. 

33C Barddka-tti (or rather varddka4ti) I take to bi 
prakritic for varddha Uu Vardha is not given in anj 
dictionary, but I take it to mean ‘cutting instrument,’ usee 
in surgical operations on the eye. 

837 Batala f ‘ wrapper/ * tunic ’ of the eye. There are sh 
of these, according to Hindu medicine : 1 and 2, the twe 
eyelids, 3, the sclerotic, said to be made of bone ; 4, th< 
choroid, said to be made of fat ; 5, the retina, said to be mad( 
of flesh ; and 6, the vitreous humour, said to be made of firi 
and water. Disorders in the last mentioned lead to timiri 
(eIbo called k&cha t or nUikd, or Unga-ndSa)) i.e,, ‘cataract. 
See ^ on these and the other constituent parts of the eye 
Nidana, p. 22 X (Dr. Dutt’s footnote), Susruta VI, l 659 (vv 
32 ff.), White s System of Hindu Medicine, p. 292 (where th« 
statements, however, are not quite correct).-i^«a ‘lesion 

I cannot find used elsewhere as a term for any disease. It 

probably sigmfia. the Wo kinds of Sutra or fukla Or* lea- 
coma of ihe krishna-mandala or ‘cornea.’ sis., the a-rrata 
or Simple and sa-vrana or ‘ ulcerous.’— Mala signifies tbs 

la i ar ff* ,n P urulent ophthalmia, also called piciakatt. 

Kokild, or the hen-bird of the Indian cuckoo, is the 

name of this preparation. The reason I cannot discover. 

.There are two suppositories under this name mentioned, on. 

m the Ashtanga Uridaya VI, 13 4S3 (?. 70), tho other in the 

Cbakradatta LXII, 85 6l ' J j bat they both difter entirely from 
our formula. 

339 The use of a mirror is twice ment ioned in formulae 
of the Ashtanga Hridaya. Once in VI, 16 4M (r. 306) ; certain 
drugs, though diiferent ones, are to be ground on it, as in 
our formula. Iu the other case, in VI, 3S^ 1 (v. 16) the 
wound of a person bitten by a rat, is to be Scarified with m 
arrow or a mirror ; in the latter case, I suppose, by the reflec- 
tion of the rays of the sun, focused on it. 

049 Compare the formula in the Charaka VI, (lines 
22, 23), which substitutes l£ld or ‘ cardamoms ’ for tAi^Ai-frood, 
but otherwise is practically the same. The 1’engMi edition 
has vida-salt. 



[Chap. IX. 

with goat’s horn, and stirred into human milk, may be used as a douche for the relief of 

severe pains in the eyes 


(869 and 870.) 344 Having suitably pounded Prapaundarika 119 , liquorice, Saileya 346 
and honey, tie the whole to a clean piece of reed 3U! , (870) wet it frequently with water, 
and squeeze it out from time to time. This makes a capital lotion for the relief of 
violent pains in the eyes. 


(871 — 87 4a.) 10 Take root-bark of the two Vrihati co , long pepper, ginger, and 
rock -salt, together with copper, and grind the whole into a paste with milk. (872) 
Having made it into a soft paste, smear it over a cop per- vessel; and repeat this process 
of grinding into paste and smearing for seven nights and eight days. (873) Then apply 
it to the eyes as a collyrium for the purpose of relieving pains. It will thoroughly cure 
swellings, and bloodshottenness. (874a) It will also remove lesions, injuries to the 
tunics, opacity, and cataract. 


(8746 — 876a,) J Take of rasot 

9 « 

and realgar, (875) 

• . • . and roots of Ku§a (J?oa cynosuroides), and mix them with honey. This makes 
a remedy against defluxion and itching of the eyes . (876a) It also cures lesions, cataract 

and every kind of eye-disease. 


(8766 and 877a) 10 . 

Twenty -Seventh Leaf : Obverse, 

and sixteen , also liquorice and 

sugar make a suppository useful in any eye-disease of recent origin. 

■ (XIX ) 

(8776 and 878a.) 10 Soncbal-salt, the two Haridra 52 , the three myrobalans 15 , and the 
three acrids 23 , mixed with liquorice, make a most excellent remedy against cataract. 


(879.) 10 Take JM (Jasminum grandiflorum ), conch -shell, realgar, liquorice, cuttle- 
fish bone, madder, black pepper, and antimony in equal parts, and add Pracliinika 346 
( Stephania hevnandifolia) and long pepper (both) of an equal amount, and twice as much 
of good red ochre. This which is a remedy against all diseases is declared to be most 
beneficial as a suppository in the case of eye-diseases. 


(8S0 — 882.) 10 Pra oaundar ka 110 , liquo ice, sugar, realgar, conch-shell, seeds of long 
pepper, rasot, and antimony, (881) calx of brass, seeds of the clearing-nut, and rock-salt, 

844 Compare the formulae in the Charaka VI, 24' 96 (liues 
6-9 and JO-15) ; also Ashtanga Hridaya VI, 1 6 4W (vv. 25-27). 
** See ante , Part I, p. 20, note 66. 

346 Prdehviikd is a synonym of PdtAd (or Stephania 
hernandifolia) ; and this is expressly explained in a gloss, 
appended to the formula in our Manuscript, 

IX.] m anuscr 1PTj PAttT Ir 

flsh bone, black pepper, and honey : __ o/ . .. 161 

> P lace them ’ wel1 covered, i n a sha ^* e \ ake e 1 ua l pa tt8 ( 

ppository to induce the growth ^ The < 

P ills > P ace lUem ’ weu C0Ve red, in a shad ”“ *“' 6C equal parts, (88a 

Sri »’ * , to i ° dUC0 the ot hi "4 mi,” 

Uppitado or any other eye-disease. and to relieve those who JtfJ* 

(XX II) 

(883 and 884.) 10 Take one part eac of white antimnnv a 
part each of White pepper 313 and long pepper, (884) and L ?* CUttle ‘ flsh bo ^, also 

to an aksha. 9 This, m the form of a fine powder, makes a cT ff ° f ^ equal 

UgUy «** med ** “4 « for people reepeofcSJ ' e “ dir '“ 8lin * t 


I0 z Z. ° ! bra!% wia 5 ih “ ke * 

(XX I Y) 


(886.) “Three parts of chebulic myrobalan, and one part of ginger : 

l o pivnnncifiirv. np.lipfiftiftl it, all diseases 



348 White 

pepper 313 , cuttle-fish bone, white sugar, conch-shell, powder of 
copper, seeds of the clean fig-juit, iron-powder, roots of Garmudi ( Elcusine corocana ), 
cardamoms, and rock-salt ; also Katukarfihini (Picrorrhiza Kurroa), and seeds of long 
p e pp er . w (th a paste of these, made with water, make a suppository. As a remedy 

a°ainst cataract, itching, and opacity, as well as against night-blindness, this is an 
auspicious suppository . 




Vrihati (Solanum indicum), white pepper 313 , Bhadramusta (Cyperrn rotundm), and blue 
lotus : — -(889) equal parts of these should be ground in human milk, or in the absence of 
human milk thev mav be -round in goat’s milk. (890) This preparation cures itching, 
cataract, dihar^, and btoodsUotfonneaa 1 also night-blmdaes, and ah, oth« dmeasss .1 

the eye. 

347 Nimi is the name of an ancient physician, who is said 
to have been a Vaid^ha, or a native of Videha, the modem 
Tirhdt, Bee Charaka I, I6 15S (1. 7, 8). In the Ashtanga Hridaya 
VI, IS 489 (v. 99) he is also mentioned as an eye-doctor, and 
called a muni or ‘ sage but in the Charaka I, (h I ) 

is described as rdjd vaideha or 4 king of Yid^ha/ ^ and 
^ is usually simply referred to as the videha-pati ovvideh- 
fidhipoti or videh-ddhipa or 4 lord of Videha ; see Susruta 

1 6S8 (v. 3a), Ashtanga Hridaya YI, 13 486 (v. 276), 22 513 
83 &), A r angas^na LYIII slq (v. S196). As such, he seems 
to have been identified with Nimi, the founder of the dynasty 

of Mithila, about whom the myth is told that he died m 
t-On&ecj uence of a curse by the sage Vasishtha, and was then 

placed by the god, in 

creatures. See Dowson . “ a ‘ " charaka I, 16'», he 
Mythology, sub voce. Accor i „ who disputed 

was cue of the conclave of mn ^ rf the rasa 

about the question of the mi JJ existenc9 0 f seven tastes. 
or < tastes/ He m^nUme ;sed (see infra, note 362 

viz., the six tastes usu^y r « 8^, (as distinguished 

With the addition of** 

from hvana or V I, 24^ 5 . ^ 

348 Compare the 0 Hridaya VI, 

LXVin 752 (r. l26 l XVIII 7 ” (t" 173). and A ^ n| L.. " 

Again Vaogaseoa ia chakradatta LXH, 1 

VT 1C 495 (v. 51». 62 > ° 2 1 

the bower manuscript. 



_ A i 



(A.) — Shorter Recension, in 27 Verses. 

pbarapy&n 1 nipatad -bind huh Sakrasya pihato hnritat | pavamfinasya yogena vikirnah saptadha 
^ II i |[ Yatra yatr=6padamshfcas=tii l deseshv=amrita-hindavah | tatra tatra samutpauna sapta-bheda 
p ritaki il 2 II Vijaya Robin! c=aiva Prithu-nama 2 tath=Amrita | J vanti, Triviitfr tad-vad= Abbaya 
eti eaptadha || 3 |j Alabu-gnva Vijaya, chaturangi tu. Rohini j snshka-tvak^Prithunama cba, mamsala 
\-Ainrita tatha It 4 H Suvarna- varna Jtvanti , pahchahgi Triypita smrita | Abbaya krishna- varna syad=ity= 
etab gamprakirtitab || 5 || Vijaya vata-rogeshu, R6 tin! samnipntike | paittike P ritbunama cba, slaisbmike 
c b- Amrita tatha II 6 || Arso-vikare Jivant!, Trivrita vrana-ropani | Abbaya sarva-rbgeshu prayojyah 
^a-yatbam || 7 H 3 Vijaya Vindhya-deieshu, Kany&knbjtisha Rohini 1 Sanrashtre Prithunama cba, 
(^hgayas=tv=Amrit& tate || 8 ]| Kasmira-deefi Jivauti, Trivrita Himavad-girau | Abbaya Vainya-desesbu 
jMa cb=aiva Haritaki (19 || Tvag-asritam tu katukam=amlam snay v-asritam vidab | Mariis-asritam kasayam 
tu ti tam vrint-asritam tatba || 1.0 || Majj-asritam tu madburam=evam paficha-rasah stbitah | haranat= 
sarva-roganam yaso-yakta baritaki || 11 || Patbyatvat^sarva-bbutanarb pathya, sivataya siva ( yasmad= 

vijayate yyadbin=samagran 4 Vijaya tatba H 12 [1 Abbayam sarva-bbutebbyo Ijbavaty-ayas =cha sasvatam 
yasab-silataya tesham 5 ten»aivam=sAbbaya smrita || 13 || Tira-j^ vana-jas=° cb=eti parvatiya tridbi 
yatb-ottaram pathyatama yijneyas=tri-vidbas=tu sab || 14 |] i)yi-kars! a-matram karsham cba tad-ardham 
cba bbaved= yadi I uttamarii madbyamam nicbam haritakyab pbalam smritarii || 5 U Jantu-dasbtam 

•/ ■ ’ 

jalS viddham linam panke ’thava jale | antar-majja-vinu'muktam pa ran am raaa-Tarjitam || 16 || UsharS 

cha sthitam bhiunam varjayet=tam haritakim || 17a || Kupitam pavanam gada-taila-yuU 1 , gbyita-ferka- 
raya 6alia pittam-api I madhu“pippalibbib knpitarii tu kapbaibj samayacb-cbbainayacb-obbamayocl-Abbaya 
II 18 || [Unmillanl 8 bndhi-bal-endriyanam, sammilani pitta-kaph-anilanam | samaSdbaiu m u tra-aakrin- 
malanlm, Haritaki pathyatama naranam || 19 || JirnS patby=ajirne ’pathya jirn-ajirne patby-apathya 

bhukte pathy=abhukte ’pathya bhukt-abhukte patby-apathya || 20 || Grishmo samya-gudam samana- 
lavanam megh-avanaddh-ambare | aarddham sarkaraya |sarady=amalaya 9 aunthya tushar-agame || 21 || 
Pippalya sisire vasanta-samaye kshaudrdna samy6jitam | rajan=prapya haritakim=iva gada nasyanta te 
satravah || 22 || Sriman=n=ayusbmantam vitaram kamal-asana-priyam cha Harih | bhava-bhaya-vinfigam= 
t&s=tava dadyad=r6ga-vijayam cha’“ || 23 || Gurunam aaptakam'i dadyad-abhishiktc tu panchakam” I 
shatkam baddbe, trayam raj 5ah pathyam 12 dadyad=bhishaktamah || 24 || Trayam tri-dbaha-^mauam, 
panchakam 11 ch^udriya-pradam | saptakami* sapta .dbatv-artham-iti vyakta'-’ haritaki || 25 || Harim 
haritakim ch=aiya gSyatrim cha div6 dive | m&kah-arfigya-tapah-kami chmtay8d=bhakah a yej=japfit || 26 || 
Haritaki manushyanam mat=Sva hita-kariai | kadachit=kupyat& matd n=6dara- S tha haritaki || 27 || 

Translation . 

[ V™ 1-5. 1 in, ( 1 , 0 ,, of nectar »lich S„k,» («., M») w., drinking, MlbgontUe e„«,, »» 

W wid ,h. (2.) «"« W**#* *» 

«» «gU „p, ib«. oknlmBc .p d ® Wf 

M. Triviitii, Abto.,1 : «h» » a« «™ W n, 7 M fau- 

, ^ S * hodamstS tu . 2 So MS. ; perhaps ieud Vrithu-mdna. 

> erse* R q ua-m. » t iaid 4 MK. xamaaram. 

i > 8 > 9 in HS,rita-kalpa I, 10,12. " 4 MS. samagram . 

i Sndm. 6 MS. vana*jd. ? MS. gutam 

Ur prajudlinit mssiug in MS. * MS. £arad-vimalayd. 

io Conjectural ; the MS. reading is corrupt, trig am for 
priyarn, and vij ayd-r ogai r=ja yarn cha for dadydd, etc. 
»i saptainaw,, pauchawiain, shash^aw. A1S. rajah 

yathydm* 18 MS. ity^uMd. 


2 StV 


limbed is Rohini, dry-skinned is PrithnnftmA, and fleshy is AmritA (5.) gold-colon red is Jivantl, five-limbed 
is Trivrita, dark-coloured is Abhaya : thus they are distinguished. 

f Verses 6-7. ] For diseases due to disordered air, Vijaya ; for those due to all three humours combined. 
Rob ini; for those due to ; and for those due to phlegm, AmritA; (7.) for pile-complaints, 

Jiumti : for granulating wounds, Trivrita j for all diseases Abhaya : for these purposes respectively the seven 
kinds should be administered. 

[ Verses 8-9. j Vijaya, in the Vindya ranges; Rohini, in the tracts of Kanauj ; Prithunama. in Saura- 
sbtra : and Amrita, on the banks of the Ganges; (9.) Jivantl, in the Kashmir country; Tnvrita, in the 
Himalaya mountains; and Abhaya, in the tracts along the Veua river : in these, the chebulic myrobalan grows, 

[Verses 10 ; 11*] Pungency resides in its bark (lit. skin), sourness in its fibres (lit. sinews), astringency 
in irs pnlp (lit. flesh), and bitterness in its buds; (11.) but sweetness in its marrow: it thus possesses five 
tastes. From the fact of its removing all diseases, it is famed as Haritaki (or the Remover.) 

[ Veises 12, 13. ] On account of its wholesomeness for all beings it is called Pa thy a (or the Wholesome; ; 
on account of its anspicionsness, Siva (or the Auspicious), and because it overcomes all diseases, it is Vijaya 
(or the Overcome!*). (13.) It is a cause of fearlessness to all beings, and of perpetual life, through its zeal for 
their glory : therefore it is called Abhaya (or the Fearless). 

[ Verses 14-17<z. ] It grows in three places, on river banks, in forests, and on mountains: and in that 
order these three kinds should be considered most effective as a remedy. (15.) According as the fruit of 
chebulic myrobalan is given in a dose of two karsha, or one karsha, or half a kar 3 ha, it is said to be superior, 
or middling, or inferior. (16.) C hebulic myrobalan, which is bitten by an animal, or damaged in water, or 
rotting in mud or water, or wanting its inner marrow, or o d, or devoid of juice, (17a.) or lying on saline soil 
and split, such should be discarded. 

[Verses 18-23.] When joined with molasses and oil, chebulic my rob a an ( abhaya ) relieves vitiated air- 
humour ; and together with clarified butter and sugar, it relieves bile ; but with honey and long pepper, it relieves 
vitiated phlegm. (19.) It opens np the intellect and the senses, it closes up the excessive flow of bile, phlegm 
and air ; it clears out urine, faeces and (other) waste products : all this does chebulic myrobalan ( Haritaki ) 
most effectually for men. (20.) When digested, it is remedial; when not digested, it is not remedial ; when 
indifferently digested, it is indifferently remedial. When eaten, it is remedial ; when not eaten, it i 3 not 
remedial; wheel eaten indifferently, it is indifferently remedial. (21.) In the summer, if mixed with an 
equal quantity of molasses; in the season when the Bky is overcast with clouds, with an equal quantity of 
salt; in the autumn, with half the quantity of sugar; on the arrival of c rid, with pure dry giuger ; (22.) 
in the early spring, with long pepper ; in the later spring, with honey of the small bee Oh King ! if 
chebulic myrobalan be thus taken, then thy diseases, just like thy enemies, will be destroyed. (23.) Ob 

Majesty ! may Hari make thee more and more long-lifed, and beloved ,by the Lotus*'Seated (Brahma) ; may the 
Lord grant thee freedom from fear of (mundane) existence, and victory over diseases. 

[Verses 24,25.] To spiritual masters seven- fold should be given of the remedial agent by a good 
phvsician ; but to a consecrated person, five - fold ; six- ’old to a prisoner; to the King, three-fold. 25.) 
Three-fold of it relieves the three humours; five-fold imparts strength to the Jive senses ; seven-fold is for the 

sake of the seven elements : thus chebulic myiobalau is distinguished. 

'Verses 26 and 27.] Let him who desires salvation, health, and spiritual exercise, meditate on Hari, 

partake of chebulic myrobalan, and repeat the Gayatri prayer. (27.) Chebulic myrobalan, like a mother, 
is the benefactress of men : and being like a mother it will never hurt them while it is in the bowels. 

(B.)— Logger Recension, in 37 Verses. 

Su k h-opavish tam Brah man am = A s vina u vakyam=uchatuh 1 kato Haritaki jata kafci-yonis=cba kirtita 
1| 1 II Rasah kati samakhyatah kati ch=*oparasah emritah i kati narnani eh=oktani kim cha tasarii cha 
lakshanam |) 2 H Ka katham cha pray&ktavya ke cha varna gunas-cha k6 | kena dravyena samyukta 
r6g&n=kan=kan=migacbchhati [{ 3 || Sa tat=prishtam yatha-prishtam Bhagavan=vaktum-arbasi | Asvinor= 
vachanam srutva Brahma vachanam= abravit I! 4 II Prapata vindur=medinyam Sakrasya pibato mritam | 
tatb divya samutpanna sapta-yonir= haritaki H 5 [| Vijaya Rohini ch=aiva Putanfi ck=Amriti tatha | 
Chetaki tv = Abhaya ch=aiva Jivanti ch=aiva jatayah || 6 11 AlSba-vyitta Vijaya ch=avyakfca ch=aiva Rdhini || 
P&tan=asthimayi sfikshma sthMa-mamaa tath=Amrita |J 7 11 Ab: situs (sic)=Chetaki jneya panchasra ch-Abhaya 


1806 ’ 

chflrpa-^gesha jath-ayham'=upaUa]payot || 10 || Parik a ha[y&tTMatt 

,Khih I ksWpt .imbhasi mmajjad=ya gun i-krit=sil praSasyatS || 11 || ChStaki 

... ..nrnatah 1 Blind -ahgal-nvata kriahna Sulria ji_is 

snT »n«4-''»n.ft JS^»« s»pbln4m«*pi lakahapam || 8 1 1 Sarya-proy&gA Vijayk Rohipi vrapa-r&pRi I ltp 

patana v>dyiul*uk-nrtlmni o^Amiattriividalj || U || Chetoki 

sarva-r&gSshu netra-ffbgfi *bhayA tut b a 
dh i ii l a u = vat' n a * 8 vag a n a - 


, Blaki dvi-vi. lli:L aa tu kriab;.& 

^ fcu varnumu j sha. -angul-iiyata krishna sukla cla^aik-angul^omaita || 12 || KAchid Akb&da-matre tu 

v^nu^^ aniUuna bhedu ^ ofc > * kaclnt=spars^pa da8hfcv=&ny& s=aiva ch=6kta cbatm-vidha 1| 13 11 Cbetukiui pfi- 
i ^ . lA -o h b ayam= u pasai { >a u t i. yi narah [ bbidyante tat*ksliayad=eva pasti-pakslu-rurigas=tiith.A. || 14 || ChGtaki 

7 dhrit® hasi ® ^Maah I tavad=vegena bhidjatS prafsabya] 3 n-Atra sarhsayah 11 15 11 

" sukumaianam kriaanam, bhesbaja-dvisliam I Cbetaki parama sasta bit-a[rthini vi] 2 recbati6 

ij H> I! Sap^anaiu-api jatinam pradbana Vijaya smrita I sukbfipayoga sulabba sasyate sarva-karmasu II 17 [] 

Uaritakya rasan j, pancba vidy al-lavana*vapjitan 4 I majj-asritarh tu madhuram=ambwh snayv-asritam 4 

r idab li 18 11 Tvag-asntath tu kafcukaiii tiktam vrint-asritam tatah 1 aatby-figritam 4 kasbayam tu rasam=Atmr= 

ruan ighi9»b II 1^ II Kapbam katuka-prayat vad =amlatvan =marutadf jayefc I pitta-gbni svadu-tiktatvad^alp- 

4cmiai s ^va 5 pacliam I ] 20 || Vatikan=paittikaii=yasruacb=cbhlesbcnikan=saiiinipatikaii 1 prasahya barati 

v y&d hin^tasiu at *pt'6k ta bantaki |] 21 [j Sada bita mamiBbaRy*a mat=eva bita^karini I mat=api vikriyam [sau] 2 

d n=6dara-stba bantaki 11 22 U Haritaki daridrau am 8ukh-6payam rasayanam I patbyatve pravara prokta 

gflTV .aniaya-vinasini || 23 ]| Trisbnayam «:antba-s6she cba banu-stambhe.gala-grabo I nava- jvare tatba kabigo 

gat’bbipyadi cba na Sasyate H 24 (1 Haritaki bbaksbyamana 6 nagarena gudena va l saindbavena bita fv=a] 

pi Bantatycn-agui-dipani || 25 II Haritaki Bama-guda-visvabbeshaja-samyuta t nibanty=>ama§aye r&gan= 

•^Q.findro yatb^asarau || 26 l| Haritaki ch sada [kba] 9 det =sarat*kale aa-Barkararu 0 I bemni sa-Briugave* 

r am 6 cba siaire pippali-yutam || 27 (| Yasaute madhuna misrarii grisbme cba sa*gudam tatba I varsbasa 

gaincibaV'Sp^am pisllam^ kalkam=atbapi va 11 28 il Unmilini buddbi-bal-endriyauam nimilini pitta- 

kapb-anilanam 1 visramsini mutra-sakyin-malanarn haritaki syat=saba bbojanena H 29 !| Haritaki earpir= 

vipacbayitri 8 samasnatas=tat=pibato ’nn sarpih \ at-atmaka4=cb=asya na santi rogab syatsprisbtba-jabgh- 

6ru-kati-balarii cba II 30 | j Erautja-tailena vipacbya patbya 9 syad=6tad=6v=auupib6cb=cha j sa-^u a- 

visbtambba-kritau=[vikaran] 3 fcjarvau=jay6t=pitta-kapb*anil-6ttban IJ 31 || Mutr6 stbitdh 10 Bapta-dinaib 

mahisbyah 10 pancb-abbaya mutra-palani pane ha | ksbirfena yah 10 sapta-dinani khadet kshirodau-asi paratas- 

tatb=auyan [[3211 Esha tri-saptad=aparab prayogo vat-odaram tivram=ap4ha banyat | plxhanam=anabam= 

ur6grabam cba sa-pandu-regam cba garam krimim=s=cba H 32 |J Haritaki dhauya-tushoda-siddbii sa-pippali- 

gauidbava-birigu-cbQrna 1 s^ddgara dburaam bbrisam=apy=ajirnam nihanti aadyo j anay fit =kshud hath cba 

il 34 || Haritakim va madbim=avalibyad 11 ^amatisaro pratbamam pravritt^ | pravahay6t=sa tv*avasisbta- 

d6sban=8ams6dbayet=k6slifcbam=as6shata4-cba j| 35 1| Dv6 pQrvani=adyad=asan-adit6 12 dv^ dve ch^api bhuktva 

tn yatba-svayam cba | asya prayogad=abbay-asbtakasya tri-sapta-ratrena puuar^yuva ay at li 36 || Mfidha 

smritib saktir=ativa-kantib srimad-vapur^nityam=anamayatvam l dipt-aguitaidrishti*balam cha kuryat sarve 
• * 

cha rogah prasimam pray anti || 37 || , 


[Verae 1.] While Brahma was sitting at ease, the Asria pair thus addressed him, “ Whence has the 
hebulic myrobalan come, and of how many kinds is it reputed to be ? (2. How many tastes are ascribed 

to it, and how many subtastes is it believed to have P By how many names is it called, and what are the 
characters of its several kinds ? (3.) How is each of them applied, and what am their colours and qualities ? 

What diseases do they severally cure, and in combination with what (other) drugs ? It is your Honour, 
indeed, that is able to answer these questions in their proper order.” Hearing the address of the Asvin pair, 

Brahma replied as follows : 

[Verses 5 |.] « A drop fell on the earth while Sakra (i.e. Indra) was drinking neotar : thence 
sprang up the heavenly chebulic myrobalan in its seven kinds, ms., (6.) Vijaya and R&hipi, also Putaua 
and Amrita ; Chetaki furthermore, also Ahhaya and Jivanti : these are its (seven) kinds. (7.) Vijayft is 
round like a bottle-gourd ; Rohini is not particularly distinguished ; Putana has a stone and is very small; 
and Amrita has a large pulp ; (8.) Chetaki may he known by its stone, and Ablmya by its five corners ; 
Jivanti has a golden colour t these are the distinguishing marks of the seven kinds. (9.) Vijaya may bo 
for all purposes, R&bini for granulating wounds, Phtauft for plasters, Amrita for one peculiar purpose.! 10.) 

Chetaki is useful in all kinds of disease, Abhaya in disea ses of the eye, Jivanti in fornmlm for powders = each 

“ MS. pathydih. 

J JJS. tath-tirham. * ilissing in MS. 3 MS. aikogun . 
ras&ndm cha, varjit&m, tnadhu> «Wi sddhv'dsrUaih, 
Hsthn'dsriiam* 6 MS. alpaddtniva. 

* bh®kshamdnd, and cha iarJcurdm 1 srthgu* 



7 MS. pint firii. 8 MS. vipflckayitvA. 

10 m S. sihiid, mahishyd, yd, 

11 MS. ftartfakt rd madlm i -dvalihydd. 

** M S, d ?<xndtil6. 



may be used for what it is suitable. (11.) Therefor®, a wise jihym.iiau will examine tlunu «ooocvW to th e. 
colour, quality, and namo. A chebulie. m yrobulau, whioli ginks wliou thrown into water, is | 1 ||| |t 

(Verses 12-17.] The ChoUki is of two kinds, aooording as it is|of dark or bright clour ; the dark kind 

has a length of six aftgula ; tho bright kind measures one aftgula, (1:5.) Som,« ran lie diotiugniahed in n 
gome, in smelling; some, in touching; others, m biting : this fourfold division is also one which » 




•> S j 

(14.) Any man that approaches Chetaki lying in the shade of a tree, from that very momufc hk hamuJ L 
become loosed ) so it is also with cattle, birds, and wild animals. (!•>.) lint having taken np ChikJd 
so long as it remains in his hand, so long he is affected by motions of the bowel*. (K>.) For priam* and 
children, for those who are feeble, and who are averse to medicines, Chetaki is declared to be most particular!* 
beueficia as a purgative. 17.) Among the seven kinds, Vijay a is considered to be foremost ; it i> svr. u , ; 
to be comfortable to use, and easy to obtain, in the case of all medical applications. 

[Verses 18-24.] Chebulie myrobalan is known to possess five tastes, only the saline being absent t-j h.s 
marrow resides sweetness ; in its fibres (lit. sinews), sourness; (19) in its bark (lit. skin \ purseucy; tv A 
in its bud-stalks, bitterness ; but in its wood (lit. bones), astringency : these tastes the discerning ascribe t> 
(20.) Phlegm it subdues by the abundance of its pungency ; air, by its sourness ; bile, by its sweetness an l 
bitterness. (21.) Because it effectually removes diseases due to air, bile, phlegm, and tho three humor. > 
combined, therefore it is called Haritaki (or the Remover). (22.) It is always salutary and beneficial to 
men like a mother : also, like a mother, it never produces any trouble when it is taken into the bowels 
Chebulie myrobalan is a tonic medicine easily procurable by the poor; and it is declared to be excellent tv 
remedy, and to be a cure for all diseases. (24.) But in the case of morbid thirst, dryness of the throat, 
lockjaw, stricture of the throat, recent fever, consumption, and pregnancy it is not recommended to be taken. 

[Verses 25-3 7. j Chebulie myrobalan, when eaten with dry ginger, or with molasses, or also with 
rocksalt, speedily promotes digestion. (26.) Chebulie myrobalan, combined with an equal quantity of 
molasses and ginger, kills diseases in the upper region of the abdomen )ust as Indra does the Asurus, (21* 
Chebulie myrobalan should always be eaten in the autumn with sugar; in the winter, with ginger; and 
in the early spring, with long pepper ; (28.) in the later spring, with honey; in the summer, with molasses 
and in the rains, with rocksalt : or it may be powdered and made into a paste. (29.) Taken with one's meal, 
chebulie myrobalan serves to promote oneks intelligence, strength, and sensibility, to regulate the dew of 
the bile, phlegm and air-humours, and the secretion of urine, faeces, and other waste products. (30.) Chebulie 
myrobalan promotes the digestion of one who eats clarified butter with it, or who drinks clarified butter after 
it ; no diseases due to disorders of the air-humour affect aim, and he remains strong iu his back, legs, thigh 5. 
and hips. (31.) Taken together with castor* oil it is a remedy acting on the digestion : that oil should also he 
drunk after it: it thus cures all troubles caused by colic and constipation, due to disorders of bile, phlegm, 
and air. (32.) Five chebulie myrobalans (abhayd), which have lain for seven days in five pala of the urine 
of a buffalo, if any one eats these with milk for seven days, dieting on rice milk, and so on for other 
periods (?) : (33.) then this excellent course of treatment will, after three times seven days, cure even 
severe abdominal swellings due to disordered air, also spleen, constipation, lumbago, jaundice, poisoning by 
rotten food, and worms. 13 (34.) Chebulie myrobalan (hantaU), prepared with sour gruel of rice, and with 
powders of long pepper, rocksalt, and asafoetida. quickly cures severe indigestion accompanied by emceed 
gas 14 , and engenders hunger. (35.) One should take chebulie myrobalan, in the form of a lincius ki:a*v 
with honey, at the first appearance of acute diarrhoea : it will carry off the surplus humours, and thoroughly 
clear out the bowels. (36 ) Two chebulie myrobalans one should eat before one’s meal, two while engaged 
in it, and two after having enjoyed it, just as it suits one individually. In the same way, by tho use of 
eight chebnlic myrobalans ( abhayd ) for a period of thrice seven nights (t.e. three weeks) one may agam 
grow young. (37.) Chebulie myrobalan promotes intelligence, memory, vigour, great beauty, figure, 
permanent health, also good digestion and power of sight : and all diseases reach a favourable ®^d- 

l * Translation of vv. S3 and 34 in part conjectural. TTI 1(1 _ a 

14 U dgara-dh vma of the text appears to be the same as udgdra-nisvasa in AU., iu, v.